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Tolna County

 

The Settlement and Colonization of Kalaznó

In the 1720s

(From:  Franken und Schwaben in Ungarn

By:  Heinrich Kéri)

Translated by:

Odis A. Schlösser

  In the County Archives of Tolna, included with the tax collector’s documents, there are two pages with the names of the first settlers in Kalaznó.  A villager who knew the people involved because his handwriting is rather rudimentary probably wrote them.  The first page contains the names of the arrivals in the year 1722; amongst them even the names of the deceased are included (Nikolaus Rausch is dead, Johannes Schirmer has died, Johannes Lang also died later in the year 1722.)  The second page names the settlers of the year 1723; the Latin text written in a different hand (June, in the year 1723) attempt to determine the time of their arrival more closely.  But, according to the Conscription Lists of 1724, they are said to have arrived in July/August.

  The County tax conscriptions begin with the year 1696 and extend up to 1752.  Beginning with the 1720s, they were carried out almost annually until 1739, then only occasionally.  With regard to the State and the County, the new arrivals were initially tax-free for three years, later six, but without any robot service due to the estate owners; nevertheless they were included in the register in order to be able to classify them among the tax payers in accordance with the expiry of the specified period allotted to them.  Since tax collectors and tax evaders often go hand in hand, people repeatedly attempted to shroud the year of their arrival.  There are therefore details in the tax registers that contradict one another.  At the same time the estate owners and their stewards knew that they could hope for more for themselves if their subjects carried a lesser tax burden.

  It appears, however, that the tax registration was undertaken with appropriate care.  During the development of the yearly tax people would have consulted the registers of the previous year and with those from other villages.  Drawing up an error free tax register is nevertheless impossible for us.  Importance was not always attached to the accuracy of listing the settlers who were still not paying taxes.  Various spellings of family names, confusion over proper names or their names in ordinary use as well as double forms of their names make it difficult to identify some of them with accuracy.

  The Conscriptions for a certain year were, for the most part, were already being carried out towards the end of the previous year.  It is obvious from the Kalaznó tax register that the current year was already being taken into account for the new arrivals in April; while with a later arrival the count only began in the following year.  The regulations were often associated with the festival of Pentecost and those who arrived afterwards in a sense gained another tax free year.  Occasionally, only the arrival year is cited in the Kalaznó tax register, while in terms of the last arriving settlers it is calculated from the cited free years. 

  It is the register written by the hand of a settler in Kalaznó that is of particular and primary importance to us.  The names that are not found in the preceding registers can be found in the other one.  The names that occur in the conscription register of the relevant year are indicated with an asterisk (*) in the columns.

  In the first year the settlers (31, 32, 33) continued to move on elsewhere or returned to their home, two further individuals only had their homes in Kalaznó for two or three years.  In terms of another individual (30) he appears to have repeatedly moved from village to village (there are breaks and gaps in 1728 and can be assumed to be just approximate).  The registers show a startling high death rate in the first years; in most cases they were predominantly young people.  Among the first twenty-nine settlers in the Kalaznó register, three of them died in the first year; further new deaths are recorded until 1727.  Probably during the conscription in the following year the facts were often entered into the register or only the name of the widow appears.

  The register of 1724 does not reveal any new names.  The register for 1725 lists an additional sixteen names.  In the following year, “from Germany” is recorded next to their names.  Two of them (41, 47) died, four of them (34, 36, 37, 49) perhaps moved on, while the rest settled permanently in the village.

  The conscription register for 1726 reports thirty-five new names.  Four of them (67 through to 70) arrived in the previous year but move on fairly soon afterwards.  With regard to seventeen others (51, 52, 71 through to 85) the year of their arrival can be calculated from the tax-free years; this group accordingly moved into another village just outside of Kalaznó.  Kalaznó was possibly also the second domicile in Hungary for another group (53 through to 66) and for many of them, not their final place of residence.  There is one new name in the register of 1727.  It probably is a mistake (either 53 or 52).

  Five new names show up again in the register of 1728 whose bearers had arrived in that year but they do not appear again in the register of 1729.  In the year 1728 the community of Kalaznó had stabilized with approximately forty resident families.  Most of them had their own homes, but some were renters.  In the next five years only a few changes can be   noted.  In 1733 three families moved away, well known family names appear in the register with new first names!  In two or three cases it could be the adult son that appears in the place of the deceased father.  The tax conscriptions of those years already show more secure economic conditions.  They have draught cattle, other farm animals as well and they were able to live off of the yield of their cultivated fields.  The rather difficult early years were now a thing of the past.

                                             Arrival

ConscriptionYear                                                                                                         Died

                                            Year, Month 1723      24      25      26      27      28      29

The list for June 1723

 1.  Bauermeister, Joh. Just   1722.04          *           *        *        *        *        *        *

 2.  Bäcker, Lorenz senior     1722.07          *           *        *        *        *                         +

 3.  Aul, Michael                   1722.07          *           *        *        *        *                  *

 4.  Decker, Johann Konrad  1722.04          *           *        *        *        *         *       *

 5.  Becht, Johann Konrad    1722.04           *          *         *       *                       +1724

 6.  Merkel, Johann               1722.07          *           *

 7.  Siebel,Sippl, Barthold     1722.04          *          *         *        *        *         *       *

 8.  Muk/Moks, Johann         1722.04          *          *         *         *       *         *       *

 9.  Narkang, Nikolaus          1722.07         *           *         *         *       *         *       *

10. Schäfer, Friedrich           1722.07         *            *        *         *       *         *       *

11. Ruppert, Konrad             1722.07         *           *                    *       *                  *

12. Ernst, Heinrich                1722.07        *           *

13. Rausch, Nikolaus            1722.07                                                                  +1722

14. Schirmer, Johann            1722.07                                                                     +1722

15. Lang, Johann                   1722.07                                                                   +1722

16. Bäcker, Lorenz junior     1723.07                      *         *        *

17. Usiger, Johann                1723.07          *                                                        +1723

18. Friedmüller, Andreas      1723.07                      *         *        *        *                   *

19. Disberger, Johann           1723.07                      *         *        *        *         *

20. Herzog, Adam/Adolf      1723.07                      *         *        *        *         *        *

21. Daum/Tamm, George     1723.07                      *         *        *                        +1727

22. Müller, Christoph           1723.07                      *          *       *                         +1727

23. Kraus/Gross, Johann       1723.07                      *         *       *                          +1727

24. Habicht, Jakob                1723.07                      *         *        *        *         *        *

25. Fink, Konrad/Joh. Heinr 1723.07                     *                                              +1724

26. Schauering, Johann         1723.07                      *         *       *         *         *        *

27. Rausch, Johann George  1723.07                       *        *        *

28. Seiber, Johann Heinrich  1723.07                      *        *        *                         +1727

29. Weiger Konrad                1723.07                     *         *        *                         +1725

 

      Conscription 1723

30. Ochs, Johann Heinrich     1722.04        *                               *         *                 +

31. Knetteler, Johann             1722.07        *

32. Ochs, Sebastian                1722.07        *

33. Ochs, Michael                  1722.07         *

          

      Conscription 1725

34. Lukas, Johann Heinrich   1724.07                                 *        *        *

35. Stolzenbach, Johann        1724.07                                 *        *                  *

36. Wolf, Johann                  1724.07                                  *         *

37. Lotz/Lutz, Konrad          1724.07                                 *          *

38. Decker, Johann              1724.07                                   *         *        *         *      *

39. Pfeil, Heinrich                1724.07                                  *         *         *         *       *

40. Stark, Ciriak                   1724.07                                  *         *         *         *       *

41. Mark, Johann George     1724.07                                  *         *                          +1727

42. Müller/Mülbert, Joh Chr 1724.07                                 *          *.       *         *       *

43. Schlitt, Johann                1724.07                                 *          *        *                   *

44. Ferbach, Veit                 1724.07                                  *          *         *                  *

45. Jobst/Jost, Konrad          1724.07                                  *         *         *                  *

46. Martin, Heinrich            1724.07                                  *          *         *                  *

47. Rill, Laurenz                  1724.07                                  *          *                         +1726

48. Werber/Färber Benedikt 1724.07                                 *           *        *                  *

49. Birger, Johann                 1724.07                                 *          *        *

 

      Conscription 1726

50. Hann, Johann Adam       1723.07                                             *         *

51. Reifenstein, Joh. George 1722 ?                                              *

52. Lukas, George Heinrich  1722 ?                                               *                   *

53. Lotz/Lutz, Joh. George    1723.07                                            *

54. Stock, Johann Heinrich   1724.07                                            *         *         *         *

55. Daum/Tamm, Martin       1724.07                                            *         *                   *

56. Widow of Jakob Ross      1724.07                                            *        *          *        *

57. Riess, Nikolaus                1724.07                                           *

58. Heppneheimer, Leonhard 1724.07                                           *         *         *         *

59. Tilger, Hermann               1724.07                                           *          *        *

60. Mülbert, Christian            1724.07                                            *

61. Müller, Jakob                    1724.07                                           *

62. Frei, Johann Heinrich       1724.07                                            *

63. Bläser, Johann George      1724.07                                            *

64. Müller, Johann George     1724.07                                            *

65. Kissler/Kessler, Johann     1724.07                                            *

66. Roth, Nikolaus                   1724.07                                           *        *         *        *

67. Sebestén, Andreas              1725                                                *

68. Thomas, Johann                 1725                                                 *

69. Stahl, Valentin                    1725                                                *

70. Seifert, Johann                    1725                                                *

71. Strieder, Johann                 1723 ?                                              *         *

72. Widow Simon, Johann       1723 ?                                             *

73. König, Konrad Walrot        1723 ?                                            *                      +1727

74. Schlitt, Johann Heinrich      1723 ?                                            *

75. Kaufmann, Baltasar            1723 ?                                             *                              *

76. Lotz/Lutz, Johann Peter      1723 ?                                            *         *                    *

77. Kerman, Wihelm                1723 ?                                             *

78. Kraus, Peter                         1723 ?                                            *                  *          +

79. Kraus, Johann Jakob          1723 ?                                             *          *       *          *

80. Mülbert, Martin                 1723 ?                                            *         *         *          *

81. Petz/Beck, Peter                 1723 ?                                           *          *                     *

82. Wickert, Dietrich               1723?                                            *                         +1726

83. Walter, Bartholomeus        1723 ?                                            *         *         *          *

84. Hofmann, Ewald                1723 ?                                           *          *          *         *

85. Jakobi, Philipp                  1723 ?                                             *         *          *

 

      Conscription 1727

86. Luksa/Luchs, Joh. Hein.    1723 ?                                                       *           *         *

 

      Conscription 1728

87. Müller, Johann Heinrich    1727 ?                                                                   *

88. Silberstamm, Andreas        1727 ?                                                                  *

89. Mülbert, Christoph             1727 ?                                                                  *

90. Hackmaier, Michael           1727 ?                                                                  *

91. Linthamb, Johann               1727 ?                                                                  *

 

      Conscription 1729

92. Decker, Bartholomeus        1724 ?                                                                             *