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Historical Accounts

Heidebauern Communities

by Henry A. Fischer

Kaltenstein (Level), Layos (Komárom),  Nickelsdorf,  Packs on the Danube, and others

Kaltenstein (Level)

This Heidebauern community existed since the year 900, but its first 600 years are shrouded in mystery.  It was only in the high Middle Ages that families took on “second” names.  The first documented list of families comes from 1546 and includes:

                                   Bennusch Hausmann

                                   Georg Thanicker

                                   Anton Pinkitzer

                                   Wolf Stelzer

                                   Marx Zechmaister

                                   Clement Murrer

                                   Valtein Rott

                                   Jakob Lang*

                                   Mathes Stainer

                                   Kyrein Reyer

                                   Georg Wallner

In addition there were:

                                   Wurmb (Wurm)

                                   Pairr (Bayer)

                                   Vischer (Fischer)*

                                   Mutt (Muth)*

                                   Weidner

                                   Muer

A document entitled the Possessio of Kaltenstein of 1644 indicates the following families were living in Kaltenstein:

                                   Thomas Stelczer

                                   Gregorius Andreas Muhr

                                   Ambrosius Muhr

                                   Thomas Pinketzer

                                   Vitus Danicker

                                   Mattaues Chechmaster

                                   Gregorius Daninker

                                   Christof Muhr

                                   Martinus Steltzer

                                   Christof Steltzer

                                   Blasius Ratt (Rott)

                                   Gregorius Schneider*

In addition to these holding land there were cottagers who did daily labour for the noble:

                                   Christophorus Botter

                                   Gregorius, Simon and Thomas Hauczinger

                                   Matthaeus Peckh

                                   Thomas Huetflus

                                   Matthaeus Fischer*

                                  Abraham Heckh

                                  Andreas Bierleiher

                                  Joachim Gross*

                                  Rupertus Daschner

                                  Johannes Fleischacker

                                  Michael Saltzer

                                  Simon Fischer*

                                  Lauren Macher

                                  Matthaeus Gross

                                  Gregorius Grass

                                  Gallus Pamer

                                  Philippus Schmickl

                                  Marcus Marx

                                  Wolfgang Salamon

                                  Matthaeus Schuesser

                                  Johannes Holczer

                                  Johannes Hierschinger

                                  Martinus Ranner

                                  Augustinius Seubalt

                                  Balsius Ratt (Rott)

                                  Johannes Lienhart

                                  Matthaeus Kharni

                                  Paulus Raisinger

                                  Stephanus Marcus

                                  Gregorius Stattner

                                  Sebaldus Matern

                                  Paulus Pinter

                                  Adam Grass

                                  Peter Schmauser

                                  Christoph Stelczer

                                  Gregorius Plambtritt

                                  Andreas Schnaider (Schneider)*

                                  Bartold Daschner

                                  Gregorius Pinter

                                  Johannes Griessell

                                  Johannes Schueb

                                  Matthaeus Grass

                                  Thomas Rhatt

                                  Andreas Schmauser

                                  Matthaeus Pameker

                                  Salomonis Ranner

                                  Jakobus Grass

                                  Johannes Dasch

                                  Blasius Wennes

                                  Jakobi Raiff

                                  Christoph Gebhardt

                                  Martinus Grass

                                  Matthaeus Eckher

                                  Gregorius Schneider*

                                  Sebaldus Schuesser

                                  Joannes Perkhamer

                                  Gallus Schuister

                                  Blassius Wiessinger

 

In the Possessio of 1732 these families are identified:

 

                                  Hutfless

                                  Hong

                                  Nicz (Nitsch, Nix)

                                  Tulner

                                  Mur

                                  Groff

                                  Cwinkel

                                  Taninger

                                  Wesuckner

                                  Lehner

                                  Weth

                                  Solczer (Salzer)

                                  Stelzer

                                  Wajsz ( Weiss)

 

 The Evangelical Lutheran Church records of 1736 list these families:

 

                                   Hoffbauer

                                   Riecher or Riecker

                                   Lechner

                                   Rath

                                   Hake

                                   Tulner

                                   Dorn

                                   Limbacher

                                   Pamer

                                   Mayrim

                                   Troscherin

                                   Pagessam

                                   Buechler

                                   Hagn

                                   Schmoltzer

                                   Gangl

                                   Dumpf

                                   Wallner

                                   Niczinger

                                   Kastler

                                   Pauret

                                   Schiebinger

                                   Weiss

                                    Dascht

                                   Schmickel

                                   Weber*

                                   Praimagen

 

Lajos Komárom, Veszprem County:

This community was first settled in the latter part of the 18th century with the majority of the original settlers migrating there from Pusztavam.  The following family names appear there in the Lutheran Church records.  There were also Slovak Lutherans who settled there with the Heidebauern.

                                                  Andorka

                                                  Bader

                                                  Bartz

                                                  Bauer

                                                  Benthaler (Pentaller)

                                                  Biller

                                                  Binder (Pinter)

                                                  Blasser

                                                  Block 

                                                  Boch

                                                  Bohm

                                                  Brindlmeyer

                                                  Brenner

                                                  Buss (Boss, Boos)

                                                  Christ

                                                  Deutsch

                                                  Eberhardt

                                                  Eberling

                                                  Eiler (Ailer)

                                                  Falb

                                                  Fausst

                                                  Fischer*

                                                  Friedrich

                                                  Fullner

                                                  Gamer

                                                  Gangl

                                                  Gasst

                                                  Geheim

                                                  Germann

                                                  Gotthard

                                                  Graf (Grof)

                                                  Griebel

                                                  Gross

                                                  Grunwald

                                                  Gsellmann

                                                  Guntler

                                                  Hackstock

                                                  Hafner

                                                  Hagen

                                                  Hanol

                                                  Haupt

                                                  Hausser

                                                  Hautzinger

                                                  Heilmann

                                                  Hertel

                                                  Heit

                                                  Hermann

                                                  Hertz

                                                  Hirsch

                                                  Hofbauer

                                                  Hoffmann

                                                  Horvath

                                                  Huck

                                                  Hutfless

                                                  Irsch

                                                  Jager

                                                  Jankovits

                                                  Juhatsch

                                                  Jullich

                                                  Jusst

                                                  Keim

                                                  Ketter

                                                  Kibitz

                                                  Kind

                                                  Kiss

                                                  Kisstner

                                                  Kivitz (Kuvich)

                                                  Kleiber (Kloiber)

                                                  Klein

                                                  Kleinmann

                                                  Klemann

                                                  Koch

                                                  Kranich

                                                  Krauss*

                                                  Krebs (Kreps)

                                                  Kreutzer

                                                  Kriessl

                                                  Kruz

                                                  Kunerth

                                                  Kuntzler

                                                  Lackner

                                                  Lang

                                                  Leckner

                                                  Lechner

                                                  Lehner

                                                  Leitner

                                                  Lisztmeyer

                                                  Macher

                                                  Malentz

                                                  Mann

                                                  Marth

                                                  Mathess

                                                  Mattern

                                                  Mausser

                                                  Meidlinger

                                                  Meixner

                                                  Mengess 

                                                  Mossberger (Muschberger)

                                                  Muck

                                                  Musch

                                                  Musser

                                                  Nagel

                                                  Nass

                                                  Nitschinger

                                                  Ossterle

                                                  Pamer

                                                  Pappert

                                                  Paul

                                                  Pavel

                                                  Prahauer

                                                  Phillip

                                                  Pohl

                                                  Pross

                                                  Pulz

                                                  Putz

                                                  Raab

                                                  Rall

                                                  Rausser

                                                  Reichard

                                                  Reiss

                                                  Reissinger

                                                  Renz

                                                  Richlmeyer

                                                  Ringler

                                                  Rivich (Rivitz, Rofritsch)

                                                  Roth

                                                  Ruck

                                                  Ruder

                                                  Russ  

                                                  Saffenauer

                                                  Sapper

                                                  Schafer

                                                  Schenk

                                                  Schmausser

                                                  Schevinger

                                                  Schmeltzer

                                                  Schmidt

                                                  Schmitz

                                                  Schneider

                                                  Schnitz

                                                  Schrey

                                                  Schranz

                                                  Schwarz

                                                  Seiler

                                                  Spiegel

                                                  Stiedl

                                                  Steffler

                                                  Steiner

                                                  Steinwald 

                                                  Stinner

                                                  Stirl

                                                  Stock

                                                  Stolz                                                      

                                                  Stolzer

                                                  Streit                                                           

                                                  Strobel       

                                                  Temmer

                                                  Teubel

                                                  Tetzl

                                                  Thiringer

                                                  Thorich

                                                  Thurr

                                                  Till

                                                  Tullner

                                                  Tulz

                                                  Urspringer

                                                  Viant (Viandt)

                                                  Wagner*

                                                  Wallner

                                                  Walter

                                                  Wanderer

                                                  Weber

                                                  Weiland

                                                  Weiler

                                                  Weniger

                                                  Wenninger

                                                  Wiandt

                                                  Wieland

                                                  Wiessberger

                                                  Wimmer

                                                  Winkler

                                                  Winterk

                                                  Wolf

                                                  Wurm

                                                  Zecher

                                                  Zechmeister

                                                  Zehr 

 

 Nickelsdorf:

It was reported that the teachings of Martin Luther were already widespread in the area as early as 1521 and Nickelsdorf would remain one of the citadels of Lutheranism during the years of persecution ahead.  Its origins can be traced back to the 11th century and its inhabitants were of Franconian and Bavarian descent.

 

The following heads of families were the leaders of the congregation during the Decade of Sorrows from 1672 to 1683 when over 800 Lutheran churches throughout Hungary were confiscated and the pastors and schoolmasters were exiled or forced to give up their ministry.  Those who refused to do either ended up being imprisoned and then later sold as galley slaves in Naples if they survived the march there on foot.  The money from their sale was used to refurbish the Sistine Chapel in Rome.  The following were leaders of the congregation who risked sending a petition to the emperor in Vienna protesting the illegal confiscation of their church.

 

                                   Hans Blasser

                                   Georg Zimmermann

                                   Johann Steltzer

                                   Lorenz Falb

                                   Georg Pingetzer

                                   Martin Meixner

 

Other families listed in the community records for 1789 included:

 

                                    Baldauf

                                    Blasser

                                    Bohm

                                    Cramer (Kramer)

                                    Dullner (Thullner)

                                    Eder

                                    Falb

                                    Fischer*

                                    Gangl

                                    Gindl

                                    Hackl

                                    Hanel

                                    Hauptmann

                                    Hautzinger

                                    Hutfless

                                    Koller

                                    Lackner

                                    Lehner

                                    Lorenz

                                    Marx

                                    Meidlinger

                                    Meixner

                                    Mullner

                                    Nitsch (Nics, Nix)

                                    Nitschinger

                                    Oszvald (Oswald)

                                    Pahr

                                    Pingetzer

                                    Rahn (Rohn)

                                    Rosenmar

                                    Rumpeltes

                                    Salzer

                                    Schiesler

                                    Schmickel 

                                    Sollner 

                                    Stelzer

                                    Theyl

                                    Unger

                                    Weisz

                                    Wimmer

                                    Zech

                                    Zechmeister

                                    Zimmermann

                                  

Paks on the Danube:

     This river port on the west side of the Danube was the jumping off spot for the immigrant trains into the interior of Tolna County.  Large numbers of Heidebauern settled here rather than taking up land, because they were artisans and tradesmen and sought a life other than homesteading and farming.  Along with them there were also colonists from Germany, primarily from Wurttemberg and Baden.  They followed the same pattern here as in Györköny, and although they were fellow Lutherans they did not intermarry with the other group until later in the 19th century.  Any attempts on their part to develop any kind of Lutheran congregational life was impossible due to the influence of the sheriff of the County who also happened to the bishop of the area.  It was only in the early 1800’s that Lutheran Church life officially began there so that the information I have comes from the Roman Catholic parish records and also includes Lutherans from Bikács and Györköny, who at times were also forced to come under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic clergy.  The following family names can be found in these records:

                                                 Aich (Eich)

                                                 Achs (Ochs)

                                                 Bauer

                                                 Bayer

                                                 Becht 

                                                 Beck

                                                 Becker

                                                 Bens (Benz)

                                                 Bernhard

                                                 Bernthaller

                                                 Binter

                                                 Blasser

                                                 Bock

                                                 Brandtner

                                                 Braun

                                                 Brihm

                                                 Bruckner

                                                 Brunner

                                                 Durr

                                                 Eberhardt

                                                 Ebert

                                                 Eich

                                                 Eiler

                                                 Engel

                                                 Engelhardt

                                                 Falb

                                                 Fantzler

                                                 Fischer*

                                                 Friedrich

                                                 Fritz

                                                  Frohlich

                                                  Galler

                                                  Gangl

                                                  Gast

                                                  Germann

                                                  Gobel

                                                  Goldmann

                                                  Graf

                                                  Groff

                                                  Gross*

                                                  Grunwald

                                                  Gsellmann

                                                  Gutsell

                                                  Haass

                                                  Hack

                                                  Hackl

                                                  Hackstock

                                                  Hadinger

                                                  Hanol

                                                  Hartmann

                                                  Haupt

                                                  Hausser

                                                  Herber

                                                  Hermann

                                                  Hess

                                                  Hessmer

                                                  Hirsch

                                                  Hobler

                                                  Hofbauer

                                                  Hoffmann

                                                  Hollendonner

                                                  Huber

                                                  Huntzinger

                                                  Hutfless

                                                  Jager

                                                  Keim

                                                  Keller

                                                  Khern

                                                  Klag

                                                  Kleitol

                                                  Kloiber

                                                  Koller

                                                  Kotzmann 

                                                  Krauss

                                                  Krebs

                                                  Kreidemacher

                                                  Kremm

                                                  Kreutzer

                                                  Kubik

                                                  Lackner

                                                  Lang

                                                  Leitner

                                                  Macher

                                                  Majer

                                                  Mannweif

                                                  Marks (Marx)

                                                  Marth

                                                  Marz

                                                  Mattern

                                                  Meixner

                                                  Messer

                                                  Muller*

                                                  Munch

                                                  Muth*

                                                  Mutz

                                                  Neuhauser

                                                  Nikitscher

                                                  Nitschinger

                                                  Osswald

                                                  Ochs

                                                  Pamer

                                                  Paul

                                                  Piller

                                                  Pingetzer

                                                  Pinter

                                                  Piringer

                                                  Pohl

                                                  Polon

                                                  Poor

                                                  Potz

                                                  Prahauser

                                                  Rapp

                                                  Rauch*

                                                  Rausch*

                                                  Reichert

                                                  Reiss

                                                  Reth

                                                  Rohfritz

                                                  Rohm

                                                  Rohn

                                                  Ruder

                                                  Rumpp

                                                  Saffenauer

                                                  Sammet

                                                  Sauer

                                                  Schafer

                                                  Schleyer

                                                  Schlosser

                                                  Schmausser

                                                  Schmeltzer

                                                  Schmidt

                                                  Schmidtberger

                                                  Schneider*

                                                  Schosser

                                                  Schrenck 

                                                  Schwarz 

                                                  Schweigert 

                                                  Seib  

                                                  Spiess

                                                  Stangl

                                                  Steiner

                                                  Stelzer

                                                  Stoos

                                                  Stromberger

                                                  Stumpf

                                                  Sulzer

                                                  Tell

                                                  Tetzl

                                                  Tieringer

                                                  Till*

                                                  Trapp

                                                  Tullner

                                                  Unger

                                                  Vogel

                                                  Wagner

                                                  Weber*

                                                  Weger

                                                  Wehnhardt

                                                  Weiler

                                                  Weiss

                                                  Weissling

                                                  Weymer

                                                  Wiessberger

                                                  Wimmer

                                                  Winckler

                                                  Wolf

                                                  Wunsch

                                                  Wurm

                                                  Zech

                                                  Zecher

 

Other Heidebauern Communities

Leiden/Lebeny:

This Heidebauern community was situated within the domains of Ungarisch Altenburg and the population had gone over to the Reformation in the 1560’s, but with the unleashing of the Decade of Sorrows the vast majority of  the community returned to Catholicism under pressure.  But there were some families who continued in their evangelical faith as “household assemblies”, but gradually they began to move to the Lutheran Heideboden villages or sought a new future in the “settlements” to the south.  Among those families were:

                                             Fischer*

                                             Gross*

                                             Hagen

                                             Hautzinger

                                             Hoffmann*

                                             Hadinger

                                             Hutfles

                                             Lehner

                                             Nitschinger

                                             Reis

                                             Reisinger

                                             Sebek

                                             Schmidt*

                                             Stiener

                                             Tullner

                                             Wieland (Wieand)

                                             Wurm

                                             Zechmeister

 

Ungarisch Altenburg/Mosonmagyarovar:

 The origins of the community and ancient fortress is lost in the mists of the history, but it did serve as a border fortress for the Roman Legions defending the Danube frontier of Pannonia in the 3rd  century.  German settlers arrived in the 10th and 11th century and then with the arrival of the Magyars it became a mixed community by the 14th century. The fortress and town harboured both Calvinists and Lutherans in the early period of the Reformation in Hungary, but it was the special target of the Counter Reformation and the Inquisition.  But some of the Heidebauern, mostly artisans and tradesmen who lived in the market town maintained their Lutheran identity.  The following family names from among them can be identified:

                                             Gangl

                                             Hautzinger

                                             Hoffmann*   

                                             Hutlfes

                                             Lehner

                                             Meidinger

                                             Reisinger

                                             Steiner

                                             Stiener

                                             Tullner

                                             Wimmer

 

Zanegg/Mosonszolnok:

Like Leiden this community converted to Catholicism except for the following families who left and settled in the new settlements or went to other Lutheran villages:

                                            Hautzinger

                                            Meidlinger

                                            Reisinger

                                            Steiner

                                            Stoiber

                                            Tullner

                                            Zechmeister

 

Wiener-Neustadt, Burgenland:

                                            Hartmann*

 

Odenburg/Sopron:

This town that stood on the remains of the Roman city of Scarbantium became the citadel of Lutheranism in Hungary and continued to be so throughout its history.  It was a totally German royal city until the 19th century when a Magyar population also developed that would eventually become the majority after the deportations of the German population in 1946.  There were individuals who sought new prospects to the south and joined in the settlements in Swabian Turkey.  Some of these family names include:

                                            Brauer

                                            Ehmann

                                            Gombos

                                            Heller

                                            Hupfel

                                            Hittig

                                            Keim

                                            Krauss* 

                                            Lakner (Lackner)

                                            Marth

                                            Muller

                                            Nettler

                                            Potzner

                                            Ratkotzy

                                            Roth

                                            Stang

                                            Straner

                                            Tuchhandler

 

Oberschutzen, Burgenland:

This one of the leading Lutheran communities in the western Burgenland that shared much of the history and origins of the Heidebauern.

                                           Balzer

                                           Gamauf

 

Lutzmannsburg, Burgenland:

This was also another Lutheran community in the western Burgenland that shared much of the history and background of the Heidebauern.

 

                                            Bohm

                                            Kimer

                                            Ochs

                                            Rossmer

                                            Schopf

                                            Zengraf

 

Pinkafeld, Burgenland:

This community was located in the central Burgenland and was able to withstand all of the onslaughts of the Counter Reformation and remained steadfastly Lutheran.

                                            Rock

                                            Sadt

                                            Schuler

 

Rust, Burgenland:

This is the only Lutheran community that survived within the Esterhazy estates of Eisenstadt in present day Austria.

                                            Becker*

                                            Ellebruch

                                            Gagenberger

                                            Seiler

 

Cools, Burgenland:

 A small village with the majority of the community holding to the Augsburg Confession (Lutheran) in western Burgenland in present day Austria. 

                                            Grunwald

                                            Steiner

                                            Schutz

                                            Taigel

 

Pressburg/Bratislava:

The ancient royal free city of Pressburg shared its name with the surrounding region the County of Pressburg.  Along with Odenburg it was the center of Lutheranism in Western Hungary and was the capital of Hungary during the occupation of the rest of the county by the Turks.  Whether the following families came from the city or the county cannot be verified.

                                        Bergmann

                                        Fleischacker

                                        Friedrich

                                        Heilinger

                                        Ladenstein

                                        Wanderer

                                        Wissinger

 

Horn, Lower Austria:

 This was a stronghold of the Dukes of Horn who were prominent defenders of Lutheranism in Austria.

                                        Pressler

                                        Ruppert*

 

     This constitutes my research to the present with regard to the names of the Heidebauern families and their various places of origin.  I do not have any records available to me on Deutsch Jahrndorf at present and only limited records with regard to Ragendorf (Rajka), but I hope to rectify that in the future.  Hopefully it will help some researchers who have come to a “dead end” in terms of tracking their families back to Germany when in fact they came from Western Hungary some 800 years before the rest of us.

 

Henry Fischer

October 2003