This Heidebauern community
was situated within the domains of Ungarisch Altenburg and the
population had gone over to the Reformation in the 1560’s, but with the
unleashing of the Decade of Sorrows the vast majority of the community
returned to Catholicism under pressure. But there were some families
who continued in their evangelical faith as “household assemblies”, but
gradually they began to move to the Lutheran Heideboden villages or
sought a new future in the “settlements” to the south. Among those
The origins of the community and ancient fortress is
lost in the mists of the history, but it did serve as a border fortress
for the Roman Legions defending the Danube frontier of Pannonia in the 3rd
century. German settlers arrived in the 10th and 11th
century and then with the arrival of the Magyars it became a mixed
community by the 14th century. The fortress and town
harboured both Calvinists and Lutherans in the early period of the
Reformation in Hungary, but it was the special target of the Counter
Reformation and the Inquisition. But some of the Heidebauern, mostly
artisans and tradesmen who lived in the market town maintained their
Lutheran identity. The following family names from among them can be
Like Leiden this community
converted to Catholicism except for the following families who left and
settled in the new settlements or went to other Lutheran villages:
This town that stood on the remains of the Roman city of
Scarbantium became the citadel of Lutheranism in Hungary and continued
to be so throughout its history. It was a totally German royal city
until the 19th century when a Magyar population also
developed that would eventually become the majority after the
deportations of the German population in 1946. There were individuals
who sought new prospects to the south and joined in the settlements in
Swabian Turkey. Some of these family names include:
This one of the leading
Lutheran communities in the western Burgenland that shared much of the
history and origins of the Heidebauern.
This was also another
Lutheran community in the western Burgenland that shared much of the
history and background of the Heidebauern.
This community was located
in the central Burgenland and was able to withstand all of the
onslaughts of the Counter Reformation and remained steadfastly Lutheran.
This is the only Lutheran
community that survived within the Esterhazy estates of Eisenstadt in
present day Austria.
A small village with the
majority of the community holding to the Augsburg Confession (Lutheran)
in western Burgenland in present day Austria.
The ancient royal free city
of Pressburg shared its name with the surrounding region the County of
Pressburg. Along with Odenburg it was the center of Lutheranism in
Western Hungary and was the capital of Hungary during the occupation of
the rest of the county by the Turks. Whether the following families
came from the city or the county cannot be verified.
Horn, Lower Austria:
This was a stronghold of the Dukes of Horn who were
prominent defenders of Lutheranism in Austria.