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Historical Accounts


UDK: 355.257.7(497.5Jasenovac)“1941/1945“

NUMERICAL INDICATORS OF THE VICTIMS
OF THE JASENOVAC CAMP, 1941-1945
(ESTIMATES, CALCULATIONS, LISTS)

Vladimir GEIGER*

First Published in Review of Croatian History, IX. no. 1, Hrvatski institut za povijest, Zagreb, 2013.


Th e unresolved and most controversial question of human losses for both Yugoslavia and Croatia in the Second World War is the number of fatalities
at the Jasenovac camp. Name lists of human losses in Yugoslavia, and Croatia, in the Second World War and estimates made by historians as well as calculations by demographers oft en diff er considerably. Th is is because the tallies proff ered by estimates, calculations and/or lists of fatalities in the Jasenovac camp fall within an excessively broad range from complete minimization to megalomaniacal claims and they diff er greatly from scholar to scholar, and are oft en rather contingent upon the (current) political climate. Based on the most important sources, historiographic and publicistic, and also statistical/demographic and victimological works, the numerical indicators of the Jasenovac camp fatalities are presented. First the initial, most oft en arbitrary estimates and claims on the number of fatalities at the Jasenovac camp are shown, followed by statistical/demographic calculations on the Jasenovac camp fatalities. Finally, it is demonstrated that the numerical
indicators based on individual names of the Jasenovac camp fatalities based on more systematic research are much more reliable.

Key words: Second World War, Independent State of Croatia, human losses,camps, Jasenovac

Th e consequences of the Second World War were considerable physical destruction, while the human losses were also immense.

Th e question of Yugoslavia’s, and Croatia’s, human losses in the Second World War became a fi rst-class political issue in the immediate post-war phase in 1945, and has remained so to this day. Th e vast majority of the debates on the human losses of both Yugoslavia and Croatia in wartime and the post-war period have no basis in science and they are recognizably rooted in ideology
and propaganda. Th e human losses of Yugoslavia, and Croatia, in the Second World War and immediate post-war years, primarily the number and nationality/ethnicity, age and gender of the fatalities in the Jasenovac camp, despite many estimates, calculations and censuses,3 constitute one of the most controversial research tasks and, furthermore, one of the most sensitive (current) political topics.

In June 1944, Vjesnik, the offi cial newspaper of the Unifi ed National Liberation Front of Croatia issued a booklet under the title “Documents on Ustasha Terror. Concentration Camps”, which contains the allegation that up to 800,000 persons were killed in the camps of the Independent State of Croatia (known by its Croatian acronym NDH).4

Th e number of fatalities, casualties and victims of the war was intentionally exaggerated in Yugoslavia aft er the Second World War, while their origin and structure were suppressed and obscured, which facilitated the manipulation of human losses.

Th e State Commission for Investigation of the Crimes of the Occupiers and Th eir Collaborators, formed by the National Committee of Yugoslavia’s Liberation, submitted to the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg the claim that by the end of 1943 a minimum of 600,000 persons, mostly Serbs, followed by Jews, Roma and Croats, were killed in the Jasenovac camp (Table8).5 In 1946, the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia offi cially submitted to the International Reparations Commission in Paris a fi gure of 1,706,000 human losses in the Second World War.6 Such an unfounded estimate circulated in international circles and became the foundation for all later exaggerations of the number of Jasenovac camp fatalities.7

Th e report of the Territorial Commission for Investigation of the Crimes of the Occupiers and Th eir Collaborators, under the title Zlo?ini u logoru Jasenovac [Crimes in the Jasenovac Camp], released in 1946 asserts that 500,000 to 600,000 persons lost their lives in the Jasenovac camp (Table 8).8 Th e 1946 report of the Territorial Commission for Investigation of the Crimes of the Occupiers and Th eir Collaborators of the People’s Republic of Croatia, compiled without documents and based on the testimony of witnesses and the minutes of three commissions which toured the Jasenovac camp on 11 and 18 May and 18 June 1945, is full of exaggerated, unbelievable and absurd statements and assertions, and it is the source upon which the myth of the Jasenovac camp is based.9

However, according to data on individual names compiled by the Territorial Commission for Investigation of the Crimes of the Occupiers and Th eir Collaborators from 1947, 25,773 persons from the territory of Croatia lost their lives in the camps of the NDH, while the number of fatalities from Croatia’s territory in the Jasenovac camp was 15,792 and 2,927 in the Stara Gradiška camp (Table 8).10

Th e Yugoslav censuses of Second World War human losses conducted in 1944/1947, 1950 and 1964, like the later supplemented and revised censuses of Second World War human losses in Yugoslavia, and Croatia, do not confi rm that hundreds of thousands or over one million people, as some stubbornly claimed or still claim.11

Nevertheless, taking into account all unavoidable indicators and estimates in the calculation of Yugoslavia’s human losses in the Second World War, the demographic losses may have been approximately 2 million, while actual losses may have been approximately 1 million. More signifi cant increases in demographic and actual losses in Yugoslavia in the Second World War were most oft en adjusted by calculation methodologies for the needs of acceptable demographic and actual losses for individual national/ethnic groups.12

Despite everything, the 1958 and 1958 editions of the Enciklopedija Leksikografskog zavoda (Lexicographic Institute Encyclopaedia) cited diff erent fi gures, fi rst that 500,000 to 600,000 lost their lives in the Jasenovac camp13 and then that the number of Jasenovac fatalities was approximately 350,000.14 Later, the Vojna enciklopedija (Military Encyclopaedia) in 1967 and the Enciklopedija Jugoslavije (Encyclopaedia of Yugoslavia) in 1971 cited approximately 600,000 fatalities in the Jasenovac camp and approximately 75,000 fatalities in the Stara Gradiška camp (Table 8).15

Th ree censuses of Second World War human losses were conducted in Yugoslavia, from 1944 to 1947, in 1950 and in 1964. Th ese censuses dealt with those casualties and fatalities caused primarily by the occupying forces and their collaborators. Th e fi rst census of Second World War human losses in Yugoslavia was conducted by the State War Crimes Commission, i.e., the State Commission for the Investigation of the Crimes of the Occupiers and Th eir Collaborators of the National Committee of Yugoslavia’s Liberation. In Croatia the census was conducted from 1944 to 1947 by the Territorial War Crimes Commission, i.e., the Territorial Commission for the Investigation of the Crimes of the Occupiers and Th eir Collaborators. Th e second census of Second World War human losses in Yugoslavia was conducted in 1950, organized by the Central Committee of the Alliance of Associated Veterans of the Yugoslav National Liberation War (SUBNOR). In Croatia the census was conducted by the Republic Committee of the Croatian SUBNOR, the Commission on Collection of Data on the Victims of the People’s Liberation War. Th e third census of Yugoslav human losses in the Second World War was held in 1964 pursuant to the decision of the Government of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and conducted by the War Victim Census Commission of the Federal Executive Council of the Social Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, organized by the Federal Bureau of Statistics and the republic statistics departments with the aim of compiling a name list of fatalities and casualties for negotiations with the Federal Republic of Germany, which under the provisions of peace treaties was obliged to pay reparations to Yugoslavia for human losses and wartime devastation.16

According to the data from the most systematic census of Second World War human losses conducted by the Wartime Victim Census Commission in 1964, 89,851 persons lost their lives in all camps in the territory of Yugoslavia during the Second World War.17 However, the fatalities of the Yugoslav, and Croatian, population in the camps of the Th ird Reich and in the camps of other occupying powers were also considerable.18 Namely, according to data compiled by the Commission in 1964, 24,752 persons lost their lives in the camps of the Th ird Reich, while an additional 19,861 persons lost their lives in the camps of the remaining occupying countries. Additionally, 134,464 persons lost their lives in all of the camps in which there were inmates from the territory of Yugoslavia during the Second World War (Table 1).19

According to the Wartime Victim Census Commission’s data from 1964, most of the fatalities in the camps of the NDH lost their lives at Jasenovac. According to the census results: 49,874 + Gradina 128, while according to the individual name list: 49,602 and in the Stara Gradiška camp, according to the census results: 9,587, while according to the published name list: 9,586 (in total, according to the report on census results: 59,589, or according to the individual name list: 59,188),20 of which, according to the individual name list, 33,944 Serbs, 9,044 Jews, 6,546 Croats and 1,471 Roma lost their lives in the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška camps (Tables 2, 8 and 9).21

However, since the work of the Yugoslav government’s Wartime Victim Census Commission in 1964 did not result in the expected and desirable (for the census takers and those who ordered the census) number of human losses of 1,706,000 in Yugoslavia during the Second World War, but rather a half the number of casualties and fatalities, and a far smaller number of fatalities in the Jasenovac camp that the offi cial and public fi gures of 500,000 to 600,000, it was rather unconvincingly concluded – with the qualifi cation that all of this was due to the incompleteness and failure of the census – that a series of oversights were committed in the compilation of census lists, that the census was incomplete and that the census encompassed 56 to 59%, or 60 to 65% of persons,without a valid explanation of just what manner of calculation made such a conclusion possible, if only the fatalities and casualties caused primarily by the occupation forces and their collaborators were recorded. Th e census was placed under an embargo.22 Th is resulted in the extreme multiplication of Yugoslavia’s (and Croatia’s) human losses in the Second World War, particularly the Serbvictims of the NDH and the Jasenovac camp.23

An interesting and not negligible fact is that aft er the fi eld verifi cations of the scope of the census of fatalities and casualties, which were conducted the most systematically in Croatia, all of the republic commissions (except the Macedonian one) which worked on the census of Second World War losses as components of the Federal Executive Council’s Wartime Victim Census Commission in 1964 assessed the census as successful.24

One common aspect of the Yugoslav censuses of Second World War losses from 1944/1947, 1950 and 1964 was their basis on personal identifi cation of fatalities and casualties, rather than on estimates, and they were conducted at a time when those providing the data generally had sound recollections of wartime events and the persons who lost their lives. It is impossible to expect that these censuses could have encompassed all fatalities and casualties that they were intended to record and that all gathered data were accurate. But the similarity of the data gathered in the censuses of Second World War human losses in Yugoslavia, and Croatia, conducted in 1944/1947, 1950 and 1964 point to the conclusion that one should retain a high degree of confi dence in them, with possible and necessary corrections that certainly should not deviate considerably from the consolidated results that these censuses of human
losses established.25

Even though the census of Second World War human losses in Yugoslavia conducted by the Yugoslav Federal Executive Council’s Wartime Victim Census Commission in 1964 organized by the Federal Statistics Bureau and the republic statistics departments did not meet expectations, it is diffi cult to accept that it was not conducted systematically. Th e 1964 census of Second World War human losses in Yugoslavia, besides not showing the human losses on the “enemy” side and the obviously numerous collateral fatalities among the civilian population, was fl awed primarily due to the impact of faulty memory or
forgetfulness (the memory eff ect), which could only be expected.26

Federal Executive Council’s Wartime Victim Census Commission recorded the human losses caused by the occupying powers and their collaborators. However, sometimes even those who lost their lives at the hands of the Western allies and Partisans were also recorded, generally proclaimed human losses that occurred at another time and/or at another place and/or in another manner. So even in the individual name data compiled by the 1964 Wartime Victim Census Commission, one may fi nd among the fatalities of the Jasenovac camp persons
who undoubtedly lost their lives during the Second World War, but due to the need for an immense and unrealistic number of victims of Nazism and fascism and their collaborators, a transfer of human losses from one category to another was carried out by means of falsifying times, places and circumstances. Th erefore, among the fatalities of the Jasenovac camp there are persons who actually died at forced labour in the camps of the Th ird Reich, in Norway for example, who were killed during Allied bombardment, who died in the refugee camp in El Shatt or in similar camps in southern Italy, and then persons who were killed by the German or Italian armies, as well as the victims of Chetnik massacres, and Partisans slain at the battles at the Neretva and Sutjeska Rivers, and even those who died as members of the Croatian Home Guard and Ustasha.27

Th e data from the Yugoslav censuses of Second World War human losses, even the most systematic one conducted by the Federal Executive Council’s Wartime Victim Census Commission in 1964, are incomplete primarily with reference to Roma human losses, which largely occurred in camps.28 Th is was confi rmed by later, more systematic research.29 According to the data of the 1964 Wartime Victim Census Commission, the statements on persons who lost their lives in the camps of the NDH, primarily in Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška, are incomplete and not fi nal; some persons are cited twice or more,
many fatalities are shown only numerically and some persons cited as fatalities only passed through the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška camps but lost their lives elsewhere, in the camps of the Th ird Reich for example. Many fatalities of the Jasenovac camp are not cited by nationality/ethnicity or their nationality/ ethnicity is mistakenly specifi ed. Th e data of the Federal Executive Council’s Wartime Victim Census Commission from 1964, despite all of their shortcomings, are a sound foundation for the establishment of the Second World War human losses of Yugoslavia, and Croatia, including the fatalities at the Jasenovac camp, based both on the nationality/ethnicity of the fatalities, and for the establishment of the total number of Jasenovac fatalities.30


Th e Commission on Establishment of Wartime and Post-war Victims of the Republic of Croatia has, from 1992 to 1999, gathered data on the human losses of Croatia (and Bosnia-Herzegovina) during World War II and the postwar years, and in the registration of casualties and fatalities it has dedicated attention mostly to Croats, generally those who were not registered in previous censuses of human losses in Croatia (and Bosnia-Herzegovina) in the Second World War, while others were only incidentally registered. Using this selective approach, the Commission on Establishment of Wartime and Post-war Victims
of the Republic of Croatia has registered a total of 261,415 fatalities and casualties, of whom 153,700 were persons from Croatia’s territory and 99,228 were from the territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina, mainly Croats, who lost their lives during World War II and the post-war period.31

Due to a biased division of human losses into desirable and undesirable, the Commission on Establishment of Wartime and Post-war Victims of the Republic of Croatia only recorded 2,238 fatalities of the Jasenovac camp (Table 8) and only 293 Jewish fatalities from Croatia’s territory in total32 and explained this approach by the fact that there were several extensive censuses of Jasenovac fatalities, and that there are extensive lists in the Jewish Community Centre in Zagreb and in the Croatian State Archives, also in Zagreb.33 However,
despite all of the qualifi cations put forth by the Croatian Commission on Establishment of Wartime and Post-war Victims, this was in fact accurate, because until then the only more systematic census of fatalities at the Jasenovac camp was the individual name list compiled by the 1964 Wartime Victim Census Commission, which was released in 1992 and 1998,34 while the name lists held by the Jewish Community in Zagreb and the Croatian State Archives (fi rst and foremost the Dotrš?ina list), are incomplete and unprocessed. However, it is signifi cant that an outcry was provoked among the Croatian and Serbian public by the numbers released by the Croatian Commission on Establishment of Wartime and Post-war Victims, primarily of the Jasenovac and Jewish fatalities, even though in the Croatocentric and selective approach adopted by the Croatian Commission and the list it produced, besides the aforementioned categories of human losses in Croatia in the Second World War and immediate post-war years, the numbers of human losses of other nationalities/ethnic groups besides were negligible, so with the exception of Croats at 79,318 and Serbs at 18,410, there were only 4 Austrians and 752 Germans, 701 Roma, 119 Hungarians and 65 Italians registered.35

Th e long duration and intensity of the Second World War in the territory of Croatia, or rather in the NDH, and the presence of considerable occupying forces from the Th ird Reich, Italy and Hungary and the operations of the armed orces of the NDH, the Chetniks and the Partisan movement resulted in direct clashes between the warring sides, leading as well to high human losses both among combatants and among civilians. Th e irreconcilable ideologies and the political and military interests of the warring sides as well as civil war multiplied these human losses.

Estimates, calculations and lists contain diff erent numbers of the actual losses of Croatian Serbs in the Second World War. According to all indicators and research, the number of Serbs who lost their lives in the Second World War is extraordinarily high. Also undisputed are the clear indicators showing that most Serbs lost their lives during World War II in the NDH.

Serbian nationalists excessively enlarge the number of fatalities at the Jasenovac camp, while Croatian nationalists completely minimize the number of Jasenovac fatalities.36 However, both the Serbian nationalist exaggerations on the number of Serb casualties and fatalities in the NDH, especially the victims in Jasenovac, and the Croatian nationalist minimization of these fi gures are equally unpleasant.

Stated simply, most oft en it is a matter of who and/or which side fabricates and lies more, more persistently and more convincingly.

In the one-upmanship surrounding the Jasenovac fatalities in the 1970s and 1980s, the Serbian side barricaded itself behind the fi gure of 700,000. But the number of Jasenovac camp fatalities cited at the time in Yugoslav historiography and popular history also exhibited – particularly among Serbian writers – a growth tendency. Historians in Yugoslavia who, by using estimates and calculations based on the many relevant indicators, attempted to point out the scientifi cunsustainability of the offi cial statements on the number of fatalities in the camps of the NDH, primarily at the Jasenovac camp, encountered signifi cant unpleasantness, and even fi erce public indictments and condemnations.37

Despite the evident indicators from all lists of human losses in Yugoslavia during the Second World War, the long-term and persistent campaign to prove that hundreds of thousands were slain in the camps of the NDH, in which certain scholarly circles (historians fi rst and foremost) simply served to transmit these claims, the number of Jasenovac camp fatalities escalated, and aft er the notorious Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Arts and Science was released in 1986, this fi gure grew to over one million Serbs killed in Jasenovac alone.38

In 1988, Dušan Luka? claimed that over one half of the civilian fatalities of Yugoslavia during the Second World War were slain in Jasenovac. Citing the most reliable data, i.e., the statements of certain offi cials of the German Reich, Luka? claimed that Vjekoslav Maks Luburi? killed 10,000 Serbs in the Jasenovac camp “by his own hand” and that there were “dozens” of such villains in the camp.39

On the other hand, according to the precise calculation done by Radomir Bulatovi? in 1990, 1,110,929 persons were killed in the Jasenovac camp, most of them Serbs (Table 8).40 Th e foundation of Bulatovi?’s ingenious calculation is anthropological research conducted in the area of the Jasenovac camp. But all of the completed fi eld inspections, aerial photographs and anthropological research
in the area of the Jasenovac camp, at the Gradina and Ciglana sub-camps, resulted in the discovery of approximately 1,000 to a maximum of 1,500 human corporeal remains.41

In the systematic dissemination of the “Jasenovac myth”, the works of Vladimir Dedijer,42 Antun Mileti?,43 and Srboljub ˇivanovi?44 are unavoidable. However, a special role in the preservation, enhancement and spread of the “Jasenovac myth” has been played by the Museum of Genocide Victims in Serbia, established in 1992,45 under the directorship of Milan Bulaji?, one of the most unwavering advocates of the theory of the anti-Serbian orientation of the Catholic Church, the genocidal nature of the Croats and the hundreds of thousands of victims of the Jasenovac camp, most of them Serbs.46

Th e virtual Jasenovac Research Institute based in Brooklyn, New York (USA), another proponent of the mystifi cation and obscuration of the facts on Second World War human losses in Yugoslavia and Croatia, stubbornly presents the data from the 1964 Wartime Victim Census Commission on the total of 597,323 fatalities and casualties of the Second World War in Yugoslavia’s territory registered by name as its ‘Victims List’ for the Jasenovac camp.47

Th e myth of hundreds of thousands, and even over one million, fatalities at the Jasenovac camp, mainly Serbs, was toppled in 1998, when the Bosnian Institute released an individual name list in a publication entitled Jasenovac. ˇrtve rata prema podacima Statisti?kog zavoda Jugoslavije [Jasenovac. War Victims Based on the Data of the Statistics Bureau of Yugoslavia];48 these were the strictly protected data from the Yugoslav Federal Executive Council’s Wartime Victim Census Commission from 1964. Despite all of the speculation as to how a list under offi cial embargo was obtained by the Bosnian Institute, as well as the contradictory reactions to the publication of this list, much became clear and apparent in its aft ermath.49

Advocates of the belief in the genocidal character of the Croats readily overlook the fact that in the territory of the NDH during the Second World War, a rather high number of Serbs were killed as members of the Partisan and Chetnik movements, and that the German and Italian occupying forces were responsible for the death of a high number of Serbs, and that a considerable number of Serbs lost their lives as collateral fatalities, in various outbreaks of epidemics, especially typhus, so it follows that the Serbs were only or mostly the victims of the Ustasha, with special emphasis on the Jasenovac camp.50

However, in response to the old and old/new Serbian interpretations of the crimes perpetrated in the NDH, and particularly the fatalities at the Jasenovac camp, many more or less scientifi cally grounded, albeit revisionist, opponents of the thesis on the genocidal nature of the Croats and the “Jasenovac myth” came to the fore in Croatia.51

In 2010, a credible, although not at all confi rmed and diffi cult to prove, precise fi gure on the number of internees in the Jasenovac camp emerged in Croatia. Ilija Barbari?, a former Ustasha now living in Brazil, claimed that on 1 May 1945 he had in his hands the “registration logs of the Jasenovac camp” and that all persons who passed through the camp from its establishment until its closure were recorded in these logs. Furthermore, Barbari? claimed that these logs with lists of internees “were burned before we retreated from Zagreb, on 7 May 1945”. According to these “registration logs”, Barbari? asserted, a total of 18,600 internees passed through Jasenovac, including those who were transferred to the German Reich for forced labour.52

Sometimes statements and claims appear which rather drastically infl ame passions. In 2012, Stjepan Razum called for a revision of the overriding claims promoted for decades on the proportions of the human losses during the NDH, and particularly those on the Jasenovac camp fatalities. But he also advocated an earlier contention only accepted in certain Croatian nationalist circles – and one that is diffi cult to prove and highly unlikely – that in the post-war years Jasenovac “endured even longer than during the war. In the post-war [Jasenovac] camp there were inestimably more casualties than in the wartime camp”. Additionally, Razum claimed that Jasenovac during the time of the NDH was a “labour and transit camp. No killings were carried out there”, and he concluded without hesitation that “there is no evidence of mass killings in the Jasenovac camp”, and that the “precise number of fatalities at the Jasenovac camp is lower than the lowest offi cial communist estimates”.53

But according to all indicators, during the Second World War the human losses and tragic fate of the Roma and Jews, as well as the Serbs, in the NDH were immense. For the NDH had racial laws to institute its relationship primarily toward the Jews and Roma, while the Serbs were subject to various forms of discrimination, persecution and violence. Th ose Croats and others who were proclaimed enemies of the “new order” and who ran afoul of the interests of the Croatian state were not spared persecution and repressive measures.54 According to numerous and diverse indicators, repression and terror
against all enemies and opponents of the NDH and the German Reich resulted in high population losses and many individual and mass killings, particularly during the course of forced labour or in camps.

Th e list of fatalities at the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška camps which were compiled, or rather revised, on the basis of data from the 1964 Wartime Victim Census Commission by the Museum of Genocide Victims and the Federal Statistics Bureau of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1997 contains data for 78,163 persons, of which most, 47,123, were Serbs, followed by Jews with 10,521, Croats with 6,281 and Roma with 5,836 (Tables 3, 8, and 9).55 According to the data from the 1964 Wartime Victim Census Commission, the supplemented and revised list of fatalities of the Jasenovac and Stara
Gradiška camps compiled by the Jasenovac Memorial Zone in 2007 contains data on 72,193 persons, of whom 59,376 (or 59,403) persons lost their lives in the Jasenovac camp, while 12,790 lost their lives in the Stara Gradiška camp.

According to this list, most fatalities were Serbs with 40,251, followed by Roma with 14,750, Jews with 11,723 and Croats with 3,563 (Tables 5, 6, 8 and 9).56 However, the latest supplemented and revised list of fatalities of the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška camps compiled by the Jasenovac Memorial Zone in 2013 contains data for 83,145 persons who lost their lives in the Jasenovac camp (and Stara Gradiška). According to this list, most victims were Serbs, with 47,627, followed by Roma with 16,173, Jews with 13,116 and Croats with 4,255 (Tables 7, 8, and 9).57

In his latest “research” in 2010/2011, Antun Mileti?, a long-time and unrelenting advocate of the claim that a minimum of 700,000 persons lost their lives at Jasenovac, tallying the current indicators of the partially supplemented and revised name list of the 1964 Wartime Victim Census Commission, i.e., the data from the Museum of Genocide Victims, and the names and numerical indicators from numerous and diverse sources, hastily concluded that a minimum of 146,401 or 146,248 persons lost their lives in the Jasenovac camp (81,408 or 80,192 according to the name list and 64,900 or 66,056 fatalities
established by number), of whom 98,252 or 97,972 were Serbs, 26,268 or 26,535 were Roma, 15,759 or 15,707 were Jews and 3,637 or 3,668 were Croats (Tables 8 ad 9).58

Estimates, calculations and lists cite diff erent numbers of Roma who lost their lives during the Second World War, a considerable portion of them in the camps of the NDH.59 Th e most systematic Yugoslav, Serbian and Croatian name lists of Second World War human losses contain drastically diff erent data on Roma fatalities at the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška camps. Th e 1964 Wartime Victim Census Commission specifi ed 1,471 Roma,60 while the Museum of Genocide Victims and the Yugoslav Federal Statistics Bureau in 1997 specifi ed 5,836 Roma61, In 2007 the Jasenovac Memorial Zone cited 14,750 Roma,62 and then in 2013 it cited 16,173 Roma (Tables 2, 3, 6, 7 and 9).63 According to Bogoljub Ko?ovi?, during the Second World War approximately 27,000 (or possibly 20,000 to 35,000) lost their lives, while according to Vladimir ˇerjavi?, approximately 18,000 Yugoslav Roma lost their lives, and out of his number, both of them calculated approximately 15,000 Croatian Roma.64
Narcisa Lengel-Krizman, doing research based on the individual name identifi cation of fatalities, specifi ed 5,611 Croatian Roma, while including those not identifi ed by name she estimated a possible total number of 8,570 Croatian Roma who lost their lives during the Second World War, mostly in the Jasenovac camp.65 According to research conducted by Rajko ?uri? and Antun Mileti? and individual name lists and numerical indicators, 23,000 Roma lost their lives at the Jasenovac camp (17,960 ascertained by name and 5,273 established by number), of whom 5,273 were Croatian Roma.66 According to the
estimate of the Museum of Genocide Victims, between 22,200 and 23,80 Roma lost their lives in the camps of the NDH, of whom most lost their lives at Jasenovac: 18,000 to 20,000 (Tables 4 and 9).67

Estimates, calculations and lists cite diff erent numbers of Jews who lost their lives during the Second World War, mostly in the camps of the Th ird Reich and in the NDH.68 Th e most systematic Yugoslav, Serbian and Croatian name lists of Second World War human losses contain drastically diff erent data on Jewish fatalities at the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška camps. Th e 1964 Wartime Victim Census Commission specifi ed 9,044 Jews,69 while the Museum of Genocide Victims and the Yugoslav Federal Statistics Bureau in 1997 specifi ed 10,521 Jews,70 and the Jasenovac Memorial Zone cited 11,723 Jews in 2007,71 and then in 2013 it specifi ed 13,116 Jews (Tables 2, 3, 6, 7 and 9).72 According to Jaša Romano, during the Second World War, approximately 67,000 Yugoslav Jews lost their lives in the Second World War, among whom approximately 20,000 were Jews from Croatia and Srijem, and approximately 10,000 were from Bosnia-Herzegovina.73 According to Bogoljub Ko?ovi?, during the
Second World War approximately 60,000 Jews lost their lives, while according to Vladimir ˇerjavi? approximately 57,000 Yugoslav Jews lost their lives; out of these fi gures, according to Ko?ovi? approximately 17,000 and according to ˇerjavi? approximately 10,000 to 16,000 were Croatian Jews.74 According to the name list provided by Melita Švob, approximately 12,500 Croatian Jews
lost their lives.75 According to some estimates, during the Second World War, out of the approximately 14,000 Jews from Bosnia-Herzegovina, approximately 12,000 lost their lives, and of these 11,000 in the camps of the NDH and in Auschwitz.76 According to the data gathered in the immediate post-war period by the Bosnia-Herzegovina Territorial Commission on Investigation of the Crimes of the Occupiers and Th eir Collaborators, during the Second World War approximately 10,600 Jews from Bosnia-Herzegovina lost their lives during the Second World War.77 Ivo Goldstein maintains that most estimates, calculations and name lists are inaccurate and too low, and using an excessively simple calculation/estimate he concluded that there were approximately 17,000 Jewish fatalities in the Jasenovac camp,78 which some cite without hesitation.79 According to the estimate of the Museum of Genocide Victims, between 27,800 and 29,900 Jews lost their lives in the camps of the NDH, out of which number
the most died in Jasenovac, 18,000 to 19,000 (Tables 4 and 9),80 while during the Second World War 29,00 to 31,000 Jews from the NDH lost their lives.81 Even according to the most recent estimate by Slavko Goldstein, 31,000 Jews lost their lives in the NDH. However, S. Goldstein’s claim of up to 25,000 Jewish fatalities in the Jasenovac camp is more than excessive and rather hastily
proff ered.82 Even the risible International Commission for the Truth on Jasenovac and its chairman Srboljub ˇivanovi?, the most tireless promoter of unfounded allegations about the Jasenovac camp, put forth a somewhat smaller estimate of 23,000 Jewish fatalities at Jasenovac (Table 9).83

Serbian, Roma and Jewish children suff ered a particularly tragic fate in the pogroms of populations and in the camps of the NDH during the Second World War. However, the original archival materials to ascertain both the number and ethnicity/nationality and religion and regional and gender structure of child fatalities in the NDH is insuffi cient, while the post-war Yugoslav sources, as well as Croatian and Serbian historiography and popular history tend toward a subjective approach and diff ering and contradictory interpretations, as well as numbers of child fatalities in the camps of the NDH and their
fate in orphanages/foster homes.84 According to individual name indicators, which are still not based on actual names but on number designated with NN (no name), among the fatalities at the Jasenovac camp – according to Dragoje Luki? and the individual name list of the Jasenovac Memorial Zone – there were over 19,000 or over 20,000 children up to 14 years of age,85 while according to Antun Mileti? there were over 19,000 or 29,000 children up to 15 years of age,86 mostly Serbian, followed by Roma and Jews.

Th e International Commission for the Truth on Jasenovac and its chairman, Srboljub ˇivanovi?, the newest promoters of the theory on the genocidal nature of the Croats and the Catholic Church, claim that among the fatalities of the Jasenovac camp there were 110,000 “small children”.87

Despite the frequent and fi erce debates on the method for ascertaining the number and fate of Serbian, Roma and Jewish children in the pogroms and in the camps of the NDH, the question of how many children lost their lives in the camps of the NDH and in the Jasenovac camp remains open. For diff erently derived indicators and numbers are still persistently used, and their proponents
cite either individual name lists or calculations or estimates, and ignore diff erent indicators. It is notable that generally everything is recycled, while there is in fact little systematic research.88

Th e individual name lists of Second World War human losses in Yugoslavia, and Croatia, and the estimates of historians and calculations of demographers oft en diff er considerably. Th ere are also opposing views on the reliability of individual name lists of Second World War casualties and fatalities in Yugoslavia, and Croatia, i.e., there is some dispute as to whether it is possible to ascertain actual losses based on identifi cation by personal names. Th e call for caution when dealing with individual name lists of human losses during and immediately aft er the Second World War, which were generally compiled on the basis of witness testimony rather than documents, rests on the fact that many witnesses who gave information on casualties and fatalities were in no position to know the circumstances, time and location of the loss of life, and sometimes not even the actual perpetrator of the crime. Besides the necessary and inevitable supplementation and correction of data on the individual name lists of Second World War human losses in both Croatia and Yugoslavia, also notable are signifi cant changes in the number and structure of the casualties and fatalities, or rather their transfer from one national/ethnic and ideological/military group to another, and even from one location of loss of life to another, which points to possible manipulations.

Th e individual name lists of Jasenovac camp fatalities cannot be deemed fi nal. Possible changes include increases or decreases in the total number of fatalities, and also the number of individual categories of fatalities.

Th ere are diff ering estimates and calculations of Second World War human losses in Croatia and Yugoslavia, and the fatalities at the Jasenovac camp and their national/ethnic structure.

According to Vladimir ˇerjavi?, approximately 85,000 persons lost their lives at Jasenovac (ˇerjavi?’s initial estimates was 100,000), of whom 45,000 to 52,000 were Serbs, 13,000 Jews, 10,000 Roma, 10,000 Croats and 2,000 were Muslims (Tables 8 and 9).89

It is noticeable in Croatia that those for whom the numbers from the individual name lists of Jasenovac camp fatalities seem too low put forth a “guesstimate” of up to 100,000 persons who lost their lives at Jasenovac.90

Some Croatian historians cited without verifi cation ˇerjavi?’s inaccurate statement91 that Bogoljub Ko?ovi? estimated/calculated 70,000 persons who lost their lives in the Jasenovac camp.92 But Ko?ovi?, as he stressed himself, never estimated/calculated the number of Jasenovac camp fatalities. Ko?ovi? only estimated the possible total number of Serbian fatalities in the camps of
the NDH, which he put at 150,000 to 200,000.93

However, those who accept the conclusion of the 1964 Wartime Victim Census Commission that the census encompassed approximately 56 to 59% of the persons who had to be recorded (deeming lower estimates acceptable and credible), such as, for example, the Museum of Genocide Victims in Belgrade, estimate that there were 122,300 and 130,100 fatalities in the Jasenovac and
Stara Gradiška camps (Table 8), of whom 77,000 to 81,000 were Serbs, 18,000 to 19,000 were Jews, 18,000 to 20,000 were Roma, 7,000 to 7,500 or 6,000 to 6,400 were Croats, 1,300 to 1,500 were Muslims and 1,000 to 1,200 or 2,000 to 2,200 were others or those of indeterminate nationality/ethnicity (Table 9).94

Additionally, in 2009 the Museum of Genocide Victims also estimated that between 173,800 and 184,800 persons lost their lives in the camps of the NDH, among whom the most were Serbs, 101,400 to 106,700. According to this same estimate, 11,900 to 13,100 Croats lost their lives in the camps of the NDH, with the note that “quite a few individuals” who were specifi ed by the 1964 Wartime
Victim Census Commission as fatalities in the camps of the NDH were ascertained as Roma and Jews in preliminary analyses, and not Croats, so that the number of Croats shown as losing their lives in the camps of the NDH should be taken with some reserve (Table 4).95

Not even the newest Serbian history textbooks have moved away from the obstinate promotion of “massacre mania” and mythical numbers of Jasenovac fatalities, so they continue to cite – along with graphic descriptions of the Jasenovac camp – the estimate of 600,000 persons killed at Jasenovac put forward by the State Commission on Investigation of the Crimes of the Occupiers and Th eir Collaborators,96 or the estimate of 500,000 to 600,000 persons who lost their lives at Jasenovac made by the Territorial Commission on the Investigation of the Crimes of the Occupiers and Th eir Collaborators of the People’s
Republic of Croatia, while the historiographic sources most oft en cited a fi gure of 700,000 slain.97 Only exceptionally do Serbian history textbooks mention, alongside the aforementioned and most oft en cited estimates, that by individual names “thus far recorded” there were only about 73,000 fatalities at the Jasenovac camp.98

Th e megalomaniacal number of 700,000 fatalities at the Jasenovac camp has remained, despite everything, omnipresent and the only acceptable statistic in many circles to this day. Long-time advocates of the “truth about Jasenovac” in Serbia, the Republic of Srpska, Europe, the United States and elsewhere in the world, such as the International Commission for the Truth on Jasenovac, established in 2000 with
its headquarters in Banjaluka,99 and its chairman, Serbian academy member Srboljub ˇivanovi?,100 have been the most relentless in the promotion of preposterous
claims about the Jasenovac camp.101

ˇivanovi?’s “truth about Jasenovac”, as encapsulated in the Declaration on the Genocide Committed Against the Serbs, Jews and Roma by the Independent State of Croatia during the Second World War “ratifi ed” on 25 May 2011 by the International Commission for the Truth on Jasenovac,102 is, stated mildly, perverse: “Th e International Commission for the Truth on Jasenovac [in which none of the members are from the territory of the former Yugoslavia] has established that the Croatian state, together with the Roman Catholic Church, carried out genocide against the Orthodox Serbs, Jews and Roma in the period from 1941 to 1945. Aft er horrifying and terrible torture, they slaughtered over 700,000 Serbs, 23,000 Jews and 80,000 Roma. Among the victims there were 110,000 small children [Tables 8 and 9]. Th e victims were slain by bludgeoning, slaughtered by knife, thrown into the super-heated depths of Pacili’s furnace, soap was manufactured from the victims’ bodies, unborn children were torn from their mothers’ wombs, children were skewered on bayonets, the breasts of women were sliced off , women and adolescent and small girls were raped, and the Croats sold ‘Serbian meat – 1 dinar per kilogram’, etc. We could go on counting all of the ways they tortured and killed indefi nitely. According to American sources, over 1,400 Roman Catholic priests in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina personally engaged in torture, killings, plunder and forced conversions. Th e crimes were perpetrated by ordinary Croat citizens, Home Guardsmen, Crusaders, teachers, peasants, clerks, intellectuals and everyone
else”.103

In order for the fi gure of a minimum of 700,00 fatalities in the Jasenovac camp to be convincing, and for the description of the Jasenovac camp to be complete, in Serbia the sham about the existence of Pi?ili’s furnace was resurrected and once more put into circulation.104

At the commemoration in the Gradina Memorial Centre in 2012, Jakob Danon, a representative of the Jewish Community in Banja Luka, concisely asserted: “[...] all international commissions with a global reputation have literally said that in the largest complex of the Jasenovac death camp over 700,000 men, women, and children, Serbs, Jews, Roma and those who did not agree with the regime were killed”.105

Serbian nationalists and like-thinkers from abroad gathered in the International Commission for the Truth on Jasenovac106 continue to consider revisionists all of those, from Franjo Tu?man to Slavko Goldstein, who do not support the number of 700,000 or at least 600,000, if not 1,000,000 and more fatalities at the Jasenovac camp,107 as well as the distinctive descriptions of the Jasenovac camp, for which there has persistently and continually been an affi nity in the public discourse of Serbian politics to this day, especially in the Republic of Srpska, most Serbian media and a considerable share of Serbian historiographic and scholarly circles.108

Th e most signifi cant and least honourable mystifi cation of Yugoslav politics and scholarship, particularly historiography and demography, was the mystifi cation of the Second World War human losses in Yugoslavia, and the fatalities and casualties caused by the occupying powers and their collaborators, particularly in Croatia, in the territory of the NDH, with particular emphasis on the Jasenovac camp.

Proponents of the mystifi cation and obscuration of the facts about Second World War human losses in Yugoslavia, and Croatia, did not waver even aft er the collapse of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Due to the lack of systematic research, even today many, both “from the left ” and “from the right”, make arbitrary claims, increasing or decreasing individual categories of Second World War human losses in Croatia, and Yugoslavia. Exaggeration or diminishment, or even concealment, of individual categories of human losses, accompanied by ignorance of the facts, most oft en emerged as a result of personal, national or political motives.

Th e primary problem in research into the number and names and ethnicity/ nationality and religious and social and regional and gender and age structure of camp fatalities in the NDH is the lack of original archival materials. But in research into the Second World War human losses in Croatia, and Yugoslavia, including the number of fatalities at the Jasenovac camp, the problem is most oft en not simply a lack of source documents and reliable indicators, but also the “good will” and even “common sense” to properly analyze specifi c matters.


Table 1

Yugoslav fatalities in camps during the Second World War according to the data
of the Wartime Victims Census Commission of the Federal Executive Council,
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 1964

Camps in Yugoslavia’s territory 89,851
Camps of the Th ird Reich 24,752
Camps in the remaining occupation countries 19,861
total camp fatalities 134,464

Table 2

Fatalities at the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška camps the Wartime Victims Census
Commission of the Federal Executive Council, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 1964

JASENOVAC camp
Serbs 26,170
Jews 8,121
Cro ats 5,900
Muslims 789
Roma 1,471
Slovenes 174
Montenegrins 35
Macedonians 7
Hungarians 59
nationality undetermined 6,792
Others 84
TOTAL 49,602

STARA GRADISKA camp
Serbs 7,774
Jews 923
Croats 646
Muslims 160
Roma 0
Slovenes 20
Montenegrins 3
Macedonians 0
Hungarians 1
nationality undetermined 58
Others 1
TOTAL 9586

Table 3|

Fatalities of the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška camps according to the list
of the Museum of Genocide Victims and the Federal Statistics Bureau
of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 1997

Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška 78,163
Serbs 47,123
Jews 10,521
Croats 6,281
Roma 5,836
Others and unknown 8,402

Table 4
Fatalities who lost their lives in the camps of the NDH according to the estimate/computation of the
Museum of Genocide Victims, Belgrade, 2009

  Croatia % Bosnia-Herzegovina % Syrmia % Total
Serbs 45,800-48,300 45.22 50,000-52,500 49.25 5,600-5,900 5.53 101400-106,700
% 46.35 % 75.59 % 57.50 % 58.03
Croats 10,700-11,700 89.60 1,000-1,200 8.80 ca. 200 1.60 11,900-13,100
% 11.03 % 1.62 % 2.00 % 7.56
Jews 15,900-17,000 57.02 10,800-11,700 38.99 1,100-1,200 3.99 27,800-29,900
% 16,21 % 16.59 % 22.50 % 16.09
Roma 17,600-19,000 79.57 2,000-2,100 8.91 2,600-2,700 11.52 22,200-23,800
% 18.03 % 3.02 % 2650 % 12.83
Muslims - - 1,600-1,800 100.00 - - 1,600-1,800
% - % 2.51 % - % .95
Others and unknown 8,300-8,700 92,39 400-500 4.89 ca. 200 2.17 8,900-9,500
% 8.37 % 0.66 % 2.00 % 4.55
TOTAL 98,300-104,700   65,800-69,800   9,700-10,300   173,800-184,800
% 56.61 % 37.81 % 5.58 % 100.00



Table 5

Fatalities in the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška camp according
to the list of the Jasenovac Memorial Zone, 2007

Jasenovac 59,376
Stara Gradiška 12,790
unknown 27
total 72,193

Table 6

Fatalities in the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška camps national/ethnic and gender structure
according to the list of the Jasenovac Memorial Zone, 2007
children men women total

  children men women total
Serbs 11,968 17,591 10,692 40,251
Roma 5391 5,120 4,239 14,750
Jews 1,444 7,345 2934 11,723
Croats 135 2,393 1,055 3,583
Muslims 49 834 180 1,063
Slovenes 3 178 52 233
Czechs 2 81 16 99
Slovaks 1 86 12 99
Ukrainians 3 47 5 55
Montenegrins 1 16 9 26
Hungarians 1 15 4 20
Italians - 12 1 13
Germans - 4 2 6
Russians - 3 3 6
Poles - 3 1 4
Unknown 8 132 122 262
Total 19,006 33,860 19,327 72,193


Table 7

Fatalities in the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška
camps national/ethnic and gender structure according to the list
of the Jasenovac Memorial Zone, 2013

  children men women total
Serbs 12,683 21,738 13,206 47,627
Roma 5,608 5,688 4,877 16,173
Jews 1,601 7,762 3,753 13,116
Croats 140 2,866 1,249 4,255
Muslims 52 897 179 1,128
Slovens 6 195 65 266
Czechs 2 96 16 114
Slovaks 1 92 13 106
Ukrainians 4 52 8 64
Montenegrins - 33 11 44
Italians - 18 1 19
Russians - 12 6 18
Rusyns 1 8 1 10
Germans - 4 6 10
Poles - 5 4 9
Albanians - 1 - 1
Georginas - 1 - 1
Romaninas - 1 - 1
Unknown 2 80 73 155
Total 20,101 39,570 23,474 83,145


* http://www.jusp-jasenovac.hr

Table 8

Fatalities in the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška camps
according to diff erent estimates, computations and lists

Jasenovac Stara Gradiska Total
estimate
of the State Commission for Investigation of the Crimes
of the Occupiers and Th eir Collaborators of the People’s
Liberation Committee of Yugoslavia in 1945
600,000 - 600,000
estimate and (for Croatia) individual name list of the
Territorial Commission for Investigation of the Crimes
of the Occupiers and Th eir Collaborators in 1946/1947
500,000 - 600,000 - 500,000 - 600,000
  15,792 2,927 18,719

Estimate
N. Nikolic, 1948

600,000 - 700,000 - 600,000 -700,000
Lexicographical Institute Encyclopaedia, 1958
500,000 - 600,000 - 500,000 - 600,000
Lexicographical Institute Encyclopaedia, 1959
350,000 - 350,000
individual name list
of the Wartime Victims Census Commission of the Federal
Executive Council, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia,
1964
49,602 9,586 59,188
Military Encyclopaedia, 1967 and
Encyclopaedia of Yugoslavia, 1971
600,000 75,000 675,000

estimate
A. Miletic, 1986/1987

700,000 - 700,000

estimate
M. Bulajic, 1998

700,000 - 700,000
estinate
F. Tudjman, 1989
30,000 - 40,000 - 30,000 - 40,000
computation
R.Bulatovic, 1990
1,110,929 - 1,110,929
computation/estimate
V. Zerjavic, 1991

85,000 - 85,000
name list 1997
78,163 - 78,163
computation/estiamte Museum of Genocide Victims
122,300 - 130,100 - 123,300 - 130,100
estimate
G. Heinsohn,, Lexikon der Volkermoerede, 1999
650,000 - 650,000
name list Commission of Establishment of Wartime and Post-war vistims of the Republick of Croatia, 1999 2,238 - 2,238
name list, 2007/2013
59,403 12,790

72,193

Jasenovac Memorial Zone
83,145 - 83,145

estimate
S. Zivanovic, 2008/2012 International Commission for the Truth about Jasenovac, 2011

700,000 - 700,000
name list and estimate
A. Miletic, 2010/2011

146,401

146,248

-

146,401

146,248



Table 9

Jasenovac camp fatalities Roma, Jews, Serbs and Croats
based on lists, computations and estimates

  Wartime
Victims
Census
Commission,
1964
V. ˇerjavi?
computation/
estimate
Museum of
Genocide Victims
and Federal
Statistics
Bureau of the
Federal Republic
of Yugoslavia
list, 1997
Museum of
Genocide
Victims
computation/
estimate
Jasenovac
Memorial
Zone
list,
2007/
2013
S. ˇivanovi?
International
Commission
for the Truth
about Jasenovac
estimate,
2008/2012
A. Mileti?
name list
and
estimate
2010/
2011
Roma 1,471 10,000 4,836 18,000-20,000 14,750-16,173 80,000 26,268-26,535
Jews 8,121 13,000 10,521 18,000-19,000 11,723-13,116 23,000 15,759-15,707
Serbs 26,170 45,000-52,000 47,123 77,000-81,000 40,251-47,627 700,000 98,252-97,972
Croats 5,900 10,000 6,281 7,000-7,500 3,563-4,255 - 3,637-3,668


-------
Notes:

1 Demographic losses encompass deaths (in combat or otherwise) during wartime, declining
birth-rates due to wartime circumstances and the migration balance. Actual losses mean those
who were killed or died during the war.
2 Th e term fatality applies fi rst and foremost to civilians slain or killed as a result of war, as well as
prisoners-of-war who were killed or died. Th e term casualty refers to soldiers killed in combat.
3 Estimates imply claims, more or less founded, on the number of human losses for individual
periods and for individual regions and for individual categories of casualties and/or victims. Calculations
imply mathematical and statistical computations, more or less founded, on the number
of human losses for individual periods and for individual regions and for individual categories of
casualties and/or victims. Censuses imply lists of individual casualties and/or victims by name, for
individual periods and for individual regions and for individual human loss categories.

4 Dokumenti ustaškog terora. Koncentracioni logori (s. l., 1944, Jasenovac, s. a.), p. 6.
5 Izveštaj Jugoslovenske Dr˛avne komisije za utv?ivanje zlo?ina okupatora i njihovih pomaga?a
Me?unarodnom vojnom sudu u Nürnbergu (Belgrade, 1947), p. 35. See Josip Jur?evi?, Nastanak
jasenova?kog mita. Problemi prou?avanja ˛rtava Drugog svjetskog rata na podru?ju Hrvatske (Zagreb,
1998), pp. 42-47; Vladimir Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje
su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”,
?asopis za suvremenu povijest 43 (2011), No. 3: 717; Vladimir Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o
ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, in Zorislav Luki? (ed.), Represija
i zlo?ini komunisti?kog re˛ima u Hrvatskoj. Zbornik radova (Zagreb, 2012), p. 64.
6 See Ljudske i materijalne ˛rtve Jugoslavije u ratnom naporu 1941-1945. ([Belgrade], 1947); V.
Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi
pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, pp. 700-701; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni
pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, p. 52.
7 Nataša Matauši?, Jasenovac 1941.-1945. Logor smrti i radni logor (Jasenovac/Zagreb, 2003),
pp. 117-118; V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili
‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, pp. 717-718.
See Gunnar Heinsohn, Lexikon der Völkermorde (Reinbeck bei Hamburg, 1999), pp. 193-194,
227-228, as well as the sources cited therein.
8 Zlo?ini u logoru Jasenovac (Zagreb, 1946; Jasenovac, 1977; Jasenovac, 1980; Banja Luka, 2000),
p. 38. See J. Jur?evi?, Nastanak jasenova?kog mita. Problemi prou?avanja ˛rtava Drugog svjetskog
rata na podru?ju Hrvatske, pp. 34-42; Vladimir Mrkoci, Vladimir Horvat, Ogoljela la˛ logora
Jasenovac (Zagreb, 2008), pp. 19-23; V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom
ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni,

popisi)”, p. 718; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom
svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, p. 64.
9 J. Jur?evi?, Nastanak jasenova?kog mita. Problemi prou?avanja ˛rtava Drugog svjetskog rata na
podru?ju Hrvatske, pp. 34-42; Mladen Ivezi?, Jasenovac. Brojke (Zagreb, 2003), pp. 29-36; V.
Mrkoci, V. Horvat, Ogoljela la˛ logora Jasenovac, p. 19; V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u
Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji
(procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, p. 718.
10 Mihael Sobolevski, “Prilog metodologiji istra˛ivanja stvarnih ljudskih gubitaka Hrvatske u
tijeku drugoga svjetskog rata”, ?asopis za suvremenu povijest 24 (1992), No. 1: 189-190; N.
Matauši?, Jasenovac 1941.-1945. Logor smrti i radni logor, p. 119; V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske
u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni
pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, pp. 718-719.
11 See V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori
i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, pp. 717-725, 729; V.
Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu i
pora?u”, p. 64.
12 See V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom
ratu i pora?u”, pp. 58-60, as well as the sources cited therein.

13 “Jasenovac”, in Enciklopedija Leksikografskog zavoda vol. 3 (Zagreb, 1958), pp. 648-649.
14 “Koncentracioni logori”, in Enciklopedija Leksikografskog zavoda vol. 4 (Zagreb, 1959), p. 322.
15 N.[ikola] Sl.[avica], “Ustaše”, in Vojna enciklopedija vol. 10 (Belgrade, 1967), p. 321; Lj.[ubo]
Bn.[Boban], “Ustaše”, in Enciklopedija Jugoslavije vol. 8 (Zagreb, 1971), p. 444.
16 See V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori
i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, pp. 702-709; V. Geiger,
“Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”,
pp. 52-56, as well as the sources cited therein.

17 See ˇrtve rata 1941 - 1945. godine. Rezultati popisa (Belgrade, 1966; Belgrade, 1992), pp. 47-
55; Mihael Sobolevski, “Prešu?ena istina – ˛rtve rata na podru?ju bivše Jugoslavije 1941.-1945.
prema popisu iz 1964. godine”, ?asopis za suvremenu povijest 25 (1993), No. 2-3: 96-97; V. Geiger,
“Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi
pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, pp. 716, 719; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni
pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, p. 64.
18 For example, see ˇrtve rata 1941 - 1945. godine. Rezultati popisa, pp. 47-55; Milorad Aškovi?,
Blagoje Marinkovi?, Ljubomir Petrovi?, U logorima u severnoj Norveškoj (Belgrade, 1979); Narcisa
Lengel-Krizman, “Koncentracioni logori talijanskog okupatora u Dalmaciji i Hrvatskom primorju
(1941-1943)”, Povijesni prilozi (1983), No. 2: 245-283; Nikola ˇivkovi?, “Jugosloveni u fašisti?kim
logorima u Drugom svetskom ratu”, Vojnoistorijski glasnik XLVI (1995), No. 1: 176-202; Tomislav
Novak, Buchenwald. Svjedo?anstvo (Zagreb, 1996); Dragan Cvetkovi?, “Stradalo stanovništvo Hrvatske
1941.-1945. u njema?kim koncentracijskim logorima izvan podru?ja Jugoslavije”, in Igor
Graovac, Dragan Cvetkovi?, Ljudski gubici Hrvatske 1941.-1945. godine: pitanja, primjeri, rezultati...
(Zagreb, 2005), pp. 77.-98. or Dragan Cvetkovi?, “Pregled stradanja stanovništva Hrvatske u
nema?kim koncentracionim logorima van teritorija Jugoslavije”, Dijalog povjesni?ara – istori?ara
10/2 (2008), pp. 201-221; Tomislav ˇugi?, Miodrag Mili?, Jugosloveni u koncentracionom logoru
Aušvic (1941-1945) (Belgrade, 1989); Dragoljub M. Ko?i?, Jugosloveni u koncentracionom logoru
Buhenvald 1941-1945 (Belgrade, 1989); Ivo Kova?i?, “Talijanski koncentracioni logori na podru?ju
Hrvatskog primorja i dijela Istre (1941-1943)”, Jadranski zbornik XIV (1991): 179-206; Ljubo
Mla?enovi?, Pod šifrom Viking. ˇivot, borba i stradanja jugoslovenskih interniraca u logorima u
Norveškoj 1942-1945. Studijsko-dokumentarna monografi ja (Belgrade, 1991); Miodrag Mili?, Jugosloveni
u koncentracionom logoru Mauthauzen (1941-1945) (Belgrade, 1992); Vladislav Rotbart,
Jugosloveni u ma?arskim zatvorima i logorima 1941-1945 (Novi Sad, 1988); Ivan Kova?i?, Kampor
1942-1943. Hrvati, Slovenci i ˇidovi u koncentracijskom logoru Kampor na otoku Rabu (Rijeka,
1998); ?uro ?uraškovi?, Nikola ˇivkovi?, Jugoslovenski zato?enici u Italiji 1941-1945 (Belgrade,
2001); Carlo Spartaco Capogreco, I campi del duce. L’internamento civile nell’Italia fascista (1940-
1943) (Torino, 2004) or Carlo Spartaco Capogreco, Mussolinijevi logori. Internacija civila u
fašisti?koj Italiji (1940.-1943.) (Zagreb, 2006); Josip Grbelja, Talijanski genocid u Dalmaciji. Konclogor
Molat (Zagreb, 2004); Mladen Grguri?, Talijanski koncentracioni logori u Hrvatskom primorju,
1941.-1943./I campi de concentramento italiani nel litorale croato, 1941-1943 (Rijeka, 2005); Anna-
Maria Gruenfelder, “U radni stroj Velikoga Njema?kog Reicha!” Prisilni radnici i radnice iz Hrvatske
(Zagreb, 2007); Jane˛ Herman, Kampor na Rabu. Koncentracijsko taboriš?e – koncentracioni logor
1942-1943 (Ljubljana, 2008); Dragan Cvetkovi?, “Nema?ki logori u Norveškoj 1942-1945. godine
– numeri?ko odre?enje gubitaka jugoslovenskih zatvorenika”, Tokovi istorije (2012), No. 2: 92-111,
as well as the sources cited therein.
19 See ˇrtve rata 1941 - 1945. godine. Rezultati popisa, pp. 47-55; M. Sobolevski, “Prešu?ena istina
– ˛rtve rata na podru?ju bivše Jugoslavije 1941.-1945. prema popisu iz 1964. godine”, pp. 98-101;
V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i nji-

hovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, pp. 716, 719; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni
pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, p. 64.
20 See ˇrtve rata 1941 - 1945. godine. Rezultati popisa, p. 47; M. Sobolevski, “Prešu?ena istina –
˛rtve rata na podru?ju bivše Jugoslavije 1941.-1945. prema popisu iz 1964. godine”, p. 96; Spisak
˛rtava rata 1941 - 1945. Ustaški logor Jasenovac (Belgrade, 1992); Jasenovac. ˇrtve rata prema podacima
Statisti?kog zavoda Jugoslavije, ed. Meho Viso?ak i Bejdo Sobica (Zürich/Sarajevo, 1998).
21 See Spisak ˛rtava rata 1941 - 1945. Ustaški logor Jasenovac (Belgrade, 1992); Jasenovac. ˇrtve
rata prema podacima Statisti?kog zavoda Jugoslavije, ed. Meho Viso?ak i Bejdo Sobica (Zürich/
Sarajevo, 1998); Davor Kova?i?, “Jasenovac – ˛rtve rata prema podacima Statisti?kog zavoda
Jugoslavije, Sarajevo - Zürich, 1998, 1171 str.”, ?asopis za suvremenu povijest 32 (2000), No. 1:
222-223 [Review].
22 ˇrtve rata 1941-1945. godine. Rezultati popisa, pp. VII-XV, 5-7; ˇeljko Krušelj, ?uro Zagorac,
“Sporna knjiga mrtvih. Aktualne kontroverze u istra˛ivanju broja poginulih i umrlih Jugoslavena
naprosto tjeraju na analizu zbivanja oko popisa iz 1964. godine”, Danas, No. 405, Zagreb, 21
November 1989, pp. 24-25; Vladimir ˇerjavi?, Opsesije i megalomanije oko Jasenovca i Bleiburga.
Gubici stanovništva Jugoslavije u drugom svjetskom ratu (Zagreb, 1992), p. 36; Sr?an Bogosavljevi?,
“Drugi svetski rat – ˛rtve u Jugoslaviji”, Republika, No. 117, Belgrade, 1 - 15 July 1995, pp. 14-15
or Sr?an Bogosavljevi?, “Nerasvetljeni genocid”, in Nebojša Popov (ed.), Srpska strana rata.
Trauma i katarza u istorijskom pam?enju (Belgrade/Zrenjanin, 1996), p. 198, (Belgrade, 1996),
p. 167; Sr?an Bogosavljevi?, “Drugi svetski rat – ˛rtve. Jugoslavija”, Dijalog povjesni?ara –
istori?ara 4 (2001), pp. 499-500; D. Cvetkovi?, “Stvarni gubici Hrvatske prema popisu ˇrtve rata
1941-1945. iz 1964. godine. Analiza trenutnog stanja prema do sada izvršenoj reviziji”, Dijalog
povjesni?ara – istori?ara 5 (2002), pp. 481-482 or D. Cvetkovi?, “Stvarni gubici Hrvatske 1941.-

1945. godine, in Igor Graovac, Dragan Cvetkovi?, Ljudski gubici Hrvatske 1941.-1945. godine:
pitanja, primjeri, rezultati... (Zagreb, 2005), pp. 54-55; Dragan Cvetkovi?, “Popis ‘ˇrtve rata
1941-1945’ iz 1964. godine kao osnova za izra?unavanje stradanja stanovništva Jugoslavije.
(Neki pokazatelji stradanja srpskog stanovništva)”, in Jovan Mirkovi? (ed.), Genocid u 20. veku
na prostorima jugoslovenskih zemalja (Belgrade, 2005), p. 77; V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske
u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji
(procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, p. 707; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima
Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, p. 54.
23 See V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori
i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, pp. 700-736; V. Geiger,
“Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”,
pp. 52-73, as well as the sources cited therein.
24 ˇrtve rata 1941 - 1945. godine. Rezultati popisa, pp. X-XI; S. Bogosavljevi?, “Drugi svetski rat
– ˛rtve u Jugoslaviji”, Republika, No. 117, Belgrade, 1-15 July 1995, p. 14 or S. Bogosavljevi?,
“Nerasvetljeni genocid”, in N. Popov (ed.), Srpska strana rata. Trauma i katarza u istorijskom
pam?enju (Belgrade/Zrenjanin, 1996), pp. 197-198, (Belgrade, 1996), p. 166; S. Bogosavljevi?,
“Drugi svetski rat – ˛rtve. Jugoslavija”, Dijalog povjesni?ara – istori?ara 4 (2001), pp. 499-500; V.
Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi
pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, pp. 707-708.
25 M. Sobolevski, “Prešu?ena istina – ˛rtve rata na podru?ju bivše Jugoslavije 1941.-1945. prema
popisu iz 1964. godine”, p. 89; V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu
koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni,
popisi)”, p. 709; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom
svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, p. 56.

26 S. Bogosavljevi?, “Drugi svetski rat – ˛rtve u Jugoslaviji”, Republika, No. 117, Belgrade, 1-15
July 1995, p. 14 or S. Bogosavljevi?, “Nerasvetljeni genocid”, in N. Popov (ed.), Srpska strana
rata. Trauma i katarza u istorijskom pam?enju (Belgrade/Zrenjanin, 1996), pp. 196-198, (Belgrade,
1996), pp. 165-167; S. Bogosavljevi?, “Drugi svetski rat – ˛rtve. Jugoslavija”, Dijalog
povjesni?ara – istori?ara 4 (2001), pp. 497-499; V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom
svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji
(procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, p. 708.
27 For example, see Marica Karakaš Obradov, Anglo-ameri?ka bombardiranja Hrvatske u
Drugom svjetskom ratu. Savezni?ki zra?ni napadi na Nezavisnu Dr˛avu Hrvatsku 1943.-1945.
(Zagreb, 2008), p. 128; Mile Prpa, “Kra?a ˛rtava kao politi?ka manipulacija istinom”, in Zvonimir
Šeparovi? (ed.), ˇrtva znak vremena. Zbornik radova Petog Hrvatskog ˛rtvoslovnog kongresa
(Zagreb, 2011), pp. 789-801; Igor Vuki?, “Zanemarene ?injenice o jasenova?kom logoru”, Glas
Koncila, Zagreb, No. 25 (2035), 23 June 2013, p. 25 [“Na jasenova?kom popisu i umrli u
Norveškoj”]; Igor Vuki?, “Zanemarene ?injenice o jasenova?kom logoru”, Glas Koncila, Zagreb,
No. 47 (2057), 24 November 2013, p. 25 [“Zato?enici - ˛rtve savezni?kih bombardiranja”]; V.
Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi
pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, p. 723, as well as the sources
cited therein.

28 See Narcisa Lengel - Krizman, “Prilog prou?avanja terora u tzv. NDH. Sudbina Roma 1941-
1945.”, ?asopis za suvremenu povijest 18 (1986), No. 1: 29-42; Spisak ˛rtava rata 1941 - 1945.
Ustaški logor Jasenovac (Belgrade, 1992); Jasenovac. ˇrtve rata prema podacima Statisti?kog zavoda
Jugoslavije, ed. Meho Viso?ak i Bejdo Sobica (Zürich/Sarajevo, 1998); Narcisa Lengel -
Krizman, Genocid nad Romima. Jasenovac 1942. (Jasenovac/Zagreb, 2003); Rajko ?uri?, Antun
Mileti?, Istorija Holokausta Roma (Belgrade, 2008); Dennis Reinhartz, “Genocid nad jugoslavenskim
ciganima”, in Donald Kenrick (ed.), Završno poglavlje. Romi u Drugom svjetskom
ratu, vol. III (Zagreb, 2009), pp. 99-109, as well as the sources cited therein.
29 See V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori
i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, pp. 704-705, 713-714, 717-
722, 725, 728-729, 734-735, 746; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske
u Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, pp. 64, 67, 69-71, as well as the sources cited therein.
30 See Spisak ˛rtava rata 1941 - 1945. Ustaški logor Jasenovac (Belgrade, 1992); Jasenovac. ˇrtve
rata prema podacima Statisti?kog zavoda Jugoslavije, ed. Meho Viso?ak i Bejdo Sobica (Zürich/
Sarajevo, 1998); M. Sobolevski, “Prešu?ena istina – ˛rtve rata na podru?ju bivše Jugoslavije
1941.-1945. prema popisu iz 1964. godine”, pp. 89, 91, 111; D. Kova?i?, “Jasenovac – ˛rtve rata
prema podacima Statisti?kog zavoda Jugoslavije, Sarajevo - Zürich, 1998, 1171 str.”, pp. 220-222;
V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i
njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, p. 723; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni
pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, p. 66

31 Izvješ?e o radu Komisije za utvr?ivanje ratnih i poratnih ˛rtava od osnutka (11. velja?e 1992.)
do rujna 1999. godine (Zagreb, September 1999), pp. 15-16, 19. See V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici
Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni
pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, pp. 710-712; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o
ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, pp. 56-58.
32 See Izvješ?e o radu Komisije za utvr?ivanje ratnih i poratnih ˛rtava od osnutka (11. velja?e
1992.) do rujna 1999. godine, pp. 16, 20.
33 Josip Kolanovi?, Milan Poji?, “Popis ˛rtava Drugoga svjetskog rata, pora?a i Domovinskog
rata. Rezultati i perspektive”, in Nada Kisi? Kolanovi?, Mario Jareb, Katarina Spehnjak (ed.),
1945. – razdjelnica hrvatske povijesti (Zagreb, 2006), p. 465; Josip Kolanovi?, “Svaka ˛rtva ima
svoje ime. Poimeni?ni popis ˛rtava Drugoga svjetskoga rata i pora?a u Hrvatskoj”, in Zvonimir
Šeparovi? (ed.), ˇrtva znak vremena. Zbornik radova Petog Hrvatskog ˛rtvoslovnog kongresa
(Zagreb, 2011), pp. 29-30; V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su
prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, p.
728; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu
i pora?u”, pp. 68-69.
34 See Spisak ˛rtava rata 1941 - 1945. Ustaški logor Jasenovac (Belgrade, 1992); Jasenovac. ˇrtve
rata prema podacima Statisti?kog zavoda Jugoslavije, ed. Meho Viso?ak i Bejdo Sobica (Zürich/
Sarajevo, 1998).
35 See Izvješ?e o radu Komisije za utvr?ivanje ratnih i poratnih ˛rtava od osnutka (11. velja?e
1992.) do rujna 1999. godine, p. 16; V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu
koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni,
popisi)”, pp. 712, 729; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom
svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, p. 57.
36 See Pål Kolstø, “Th e Serbian-Croatian Controversy over Jasenovac”, in Sabrina P. Ramet, Ola
Listhaug (ed.), Serbia and the Serbs in World War Two (Basingstoke, Hampshire/New York,
2011), pp. 225-246; V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su
prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”,
pp. 724-727, as well as the sources cited therein.

37 For example, see Bruno Buši?, “ˇrtve rata”, Hrvatski knji˛evni list, No. 15, Zagreb, 1969, pp.
2-3 or Bruno Buši?, “ˇrtve rata”, Hrvatska revija XIX (1969), Vol. 4: 491-495; [Ivan Jeli?], “Koncentracioni
logori”, in Enciklopedija hrvatske povijesti i kulture (Zagreb, 1980), pp. 304-305;
Franjo Tu?man, Nacionalno pitanje u suvremenoj Europi. Dodatak: Pisac knjige pred sudom
(München/Barcelona, 1982); Franjo Tu?man, Bespu?a povijesne zbiljnosti. Rasprava o povijesti i
fi lozofi ji zlosilja (Zagreb, 1989, Zagreb, 1990); Ljubo Boban, Kontroverze iz povijesti Jugoslavije,
vol. 2 (Zagreb, 1989); Milan Vukovi?, Dr. Franjo Tu?man u sudskim dosjeima /11. sije?nja 1972.
– 10. lipnja 1990./ (Koprivnica, 2007); James J. Sadkovich, Tu?man. Prva politi?ka biografi ja
(Zagreb, 2010), pp. 341-348; V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje
su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”,
p. 720; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom
ratu i pora?u”, p. 67.
38 See V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori
i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, p. 726; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni
pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, p. 68.
39 Dušan Luka?, “Denacionalizacija, iseljavanje i genocid na Balkanu u toku drugog svetskog
rata”, Istorija 20. veka VI (1988), No. 1-2: 71-72.
40 See Radomir Bulatovi?, Koncentracioni logor Jasenovac, s posebnim osvrtom na Donju
Gradinu. Istorijsko-sociološka i antropološka studija (Sarajevo, 1990).

41 See Zlo?ini u logoru Jasenovac, 39-42; Mirko Peršen, Ustaški logori (Zagreb, 1966), pp. 151-153,
155-161, (Zagreb, 1990), pp. 221-228; Dušan Misira?a, “Koncentracioni logor Jasenovac”, Naše
starine XII (1969): 119-125; Lj. Boban, Kontroverze iz povijesti Jugoslavije, vol. 2, pp. 367-369;
Vladimir ˇerjavi?, “Stradanja Jugoslavena u drugom svjetskom ratu”, Viktimologija 1 (Zagreb,
1990), No. 1-2: 46-47; V. ˇerjavi?, Opsesije i megalomanije oko Jasenovca i Bleiburga. Gubici
stanovništva Jugoslavije u drugom svjetskom ratu, pp. 53-57; Vladimir ˇerjavi?, Yugoslavia - manipulations
with the numbers of Second World War victims/Yougoslavie - manipulations sur le nombre
des victimes de la Seconde guerre mondiale/Jugoslawien - Manipulationen mit Kriegsopfern des
zweiten Weltkriegs/Jugoslavija – manipulacije ˛rtvama Drugog svjetskog rata (Zagreb, 1993), pp.
21-22, 53-54, 85-86, 113-114; Vladimir ˇerjavi?, Population losses in Yugoslavia 1941-1945 (Zagreb,
1997), pp. 79-82; Vladimir ˇerjavi?, Pertes de la population en Yougoslavie 1941-1945 (Zagreb,
1997), pp. 87-90; Antun Mileti?, “O bilansu smrti u koncentracionom logoru Jasenovac
(1941-1945)”, in Radovan Samard˛i? (ed.), Genocid nad Srbima u II svetskom ratu (Belgrade, 1995),
pp. 213-214; J. Jur?evi?, Nastanak jasenova?kog mita. Problemi prou?avanja ˛rtava Drugog svjetskog
rata na podru?ju Hrvatske, pp. 58-70; Jovan Mirkovi?, Objavljeni izvori i literatura o
jasenova?kim logorima (Banja Luka/Belgrade, 2000), pp. 238-240; M. Ivezi?, Jasenovac. Brojke, pp.
57-60; Antun Mileti?, Koncentracioni logor Jasenovac 1941-1945. Dokumenta, vol. IV (Jagodina,
2007), pp. 350-412: V. Mrkoci, V. Horvat, Ogoljela la˛ logora Jasenovac, pp. 23-26; Filip Škiljan,
“Logorski sustav Jasenovac - kontroverze”, in Sabrina P. Ramet (ed.), Nezavisna Dr˛ava Hrvatska
1941.-1945. (Zagreb, 2009), p. 124; V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu
koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”,
p. 727; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom
ratu i pora?u”, p. 68; I. Vuki?, “Zanemarene ?injenice o jasenova?kom logoru”, Glas Koncila, Zagreb,
No. 11 (2021), 17 March 2013, p. 21; No. 12 (2022), 24 March 2013, p. 25; No. 13 (2023), 31
March 2013, p. 31; No. 14 (2024), 7 April 2013, p. 21, as well as the sources cited therein.
42 For example, see Vladimir Dedijer, Vatikan i Jasenovac (Belgrade, 1987); Vladimir Dedijer,
Jasenovac. Das jugoslawische Auschwitz und der Vatikan (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1987); Vladimir
Dedijer, Th e Yugoslav Auschwitz and the Vatican. Th e Croatian Massacre of the Serbs During
World War II (Buff alo, New York, 1992); Vladimir Dedijer, Antun Mileti?, Protiv zaborava i
tabua (Jasenovac 1941-1991) (Sarajevo, 1991).
43 For example, see Antun Mileti?, Koncentracioni logor Jasenovac 1941-1945. Dokumenta, vol.
I-III (Belgrade, 1986 and 1987), vol. IV (Jagodina, 2007); Antun Mileti?, Ustaška fabrika smrti
1941-1945 (Belgrade, 1988); Vladimir Dedijer, Antun Mileti?, Protiv zaborava i tabua (Jasenovac
1941-1991) (Sarajevo, 1991); Antun Mileti?, NDH - Koncentracioni logor Jasenovac 1941-
1945. (Belgrade, 2010); Antun Mileti?, Ubijeni u koncentracionom logoru Jasenovac 1941-1945./
Th e Assassinated in the Jasenovac Concentration Camp 1941-1945. (Jagodina, 2011).
44 See Srboljub ˇivanovi?, Jasenovac. Odabrani radovi, ?lanci, intervijui, govori i diskusije (Belgrade/
London, 2008, Belgrade, 2012).
45 See Jovan Mirkovi?, Objavljeni izvori i literatura o jasenova?kim logorima (Banja Luka/Belgrade,
2000); Jovan Mirkovi?, “Izdanja Muzeja ˛rtava genocida i gra?a o ljudskim gubicima u
tim izdanjima”,Dijalog povjesni?ara – istori?ara 7 (2003), pp. 573-591.

46 For example, see Milan Bulaji?, Ustaški zlo?ini genocida i su?enje Andriji Artukovi?u 1986. godine,
vol. I-IV, (Beograd, 1988-1989); Milan Bulaji?, “Jasenova?ki mit” Franje Tu?mana - Genocid
nad Srbima, Jevrejima i Ciganima (Belgrade, 1994) or Milan Bulaji?, Tudjman’s “Jasenovac Myth”.
Genocide against Serbs, Jews and Gypsies (Belgrade, 1994); Milan Bulaji?, Jasenovac. Ustaški logor
smrti. “Srpski mit?”. Hrvatski ustaški logori genocida nad Srbima, Jevrejima i Ciganima (Belgrade,
1999); Milan Bulaji?, Jasenovac na sudu. Su?enje D. Šaki?u (Jasenovac - sistem ustaških logora genocida,
balkanski Aušvic) (Belgrade, 2001) or Milan Bulaji?, Jasenovac. Balkan Auschwitz. System of
Croatian Nazi-Ustasha Genocide Camps for Serbs, Jews and Gypsies (Belgrade, 2001).
47 V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori
i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, p. 724. See www. jasenovac.
org.
48 Jasenovac. ˇrtve rata prema podacima Statisti?kog zavoda Jugoslavije, ed. Meho Viso?ak i
Bejdo Sobica (Zürich/Sarajevo, 1998).
49 See Bogoljub Ko?ovi?, Nauka, nacionalizam i propaganda (Izme?u gubitaka i ˛rtava Drugoga
svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji) (Paris, 1999), pp. 143-144; D. Kova?i?, “Jasenovac – ˛rtve rata prema
podacima Statisti?kog zavoda Jugoslavije, Sarajevo - Zürich, 1998, 1171 str.”, pp. 219-224; V.
Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi
pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, p. 723; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni
50 Dragan Cvetkovi?, “Stradanje civila Nezavisne Dr˛ave Hrvatske u logoru Jasenovac”, Tokovi
istorije (2007), No. 4: 154; V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su
prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, p.
726; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu
i pora?u”, pp. 72-73.
51 For example, see Vladimir ˇerjavi?, Opsesije i megalomanije oko Jasenovca i Bleiburga. Gubici
stanovništva Jugoslavije u drugom svjetskom ratu (Zagreb, 1992); Vladimir ˇerjavi?, Yugoslavia -
manipulations with the numbers of Second World War victims/Yougoslavie - manipulations sur le
nombre des victimes de la Seconde guerre mondiale/Jugoslawien - Manipulationen mit Kriegsopfern
des zweiten Weltkriegs/Jugoslavija – manipulacije ˛rtvama Drugog svjetskog rata (Zagreb,
1993); Vladimir ˇerjavi?, Population losses in Yugoslavia 1941-1945 (Zagreb, 1997); Vladimir
ˇerjavi?, Pertes de la population en Yougoslavie 1941-1945 (Zagreb, 1997); Josip Jur?evi?, Nastanak
jasenova?kog mita. Problemi prou?avanja ˛rtava Drugog svjetskog rata na podru?ju Hrvatske
(Zagreb, 1998) or Josip Jur?evi?, Die Entstehung des Mythos Jasenovac. Probleme bei der Forschungsarbeit
zu den Opfern des II. Weltkrieges auf dem Gebiet von Kroatien (Zagreb, 2007); Josip
Pe?ari?, Srpski mit o Jasenovcu. Skrivanje istine o beogradskim konc-logorima (Zagreb, 1998);
Josip Pe?ari?, Srpski mit o Jasenovcu, vol. II, O Bulaji?evoj ideologiji genocida hrvatskih autora
(Zagreb, 2000); Mladen Ivezi?, Jasenovac. Brojke (Zagreb, 2003); Nataša Matauši?, Jasenovac
1941.-1945. Logor smrti i radni logor (Jasenovac/Zagreb, 2003); Tea Ben?i? Rimay (ed.), Spomen
podru?je Jasenovac (Jasenovac, 2006); Vladimir Mrkoci, Vladimir Horvat, Ogoljela la˛ logora
Jasenovac (Zagreb, 2008); Tomislav Vukovi?, Druga?ija povijest (o Srbu, Jasenovcu, Glini ...) (Zagreb,
2012); V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili
‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, p. 727; V. Geiger,
“Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, p.
68.; Tomislav Vukovi?, “Jasenovac. Velikosrpski mit kojemu slu˛i hrvatska vlast”, Hrvatski tjednik,
No. 451, Zadar, 16 May 2013, 38-44.; I. Vuki?, “Zanemarene ?injenice o jasenova?kom logoru”,
Glas Koncila, Zagreb, No. 11 (2021), 17 March 2013, p. 21; No. 12 (2022), 24 March 2013, p.
25; No. 13 (2023), 31 March 2013, p. 31; No. 14 (2024), 7 April 2013, p. 21; No. 15 (2025), 14 April
2013, p. 21; No. 16 (2026), 21 April 2013, p. 21; No. 23 (2033), 9 June 2013, p. 21; No. 24 (2034),
16 June 2013, p. 21; No. 25 (2035), 23 June 2013, p. 25; No. 26 (2036), 30 June 2013, p. 21; No. 27
(2037), 7 July 2013, p. 21; No. 28 (2038), 14 July 2013, p. 21; No. 29 (2039), 21 July 2013, p. 21; No.
30 (pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, p. 68.

30 (2040), 28 July 2013, p. 21; No. 43 (2053), 27 October 2013, p. 25; No. 44 (2054), 3 November
2013, p. 21; No. 45 (2055), 10 November 2013, p. 21; No. 46 (2056), 17 November 2013, p. 21; No.
47 (2057), 24 November 2013, p. 25; No. 48 (2058), 1 December 2013, p. 21; No. 49 (2059), 8
December 2013, p. 21; No. 50 (2060), 15 December 2013, p. 21.

52 See Ilija Barbari?, Nezavisna Dr˛ava Hrvatska bilo je pravo ime (Split, 2010), p. 100.
53 See “Intervju. Dr. Stjepan Razum, povjesni?ar i arhivist: Vrijeme je da srušimo velikosrpski
mit o jasenovcu. Nema dokaza za masovne ustaške zlo?ine u Jasenovcu, ali ima za partizanske!”,
Hrvatski list, No. 411, Zadar, 9 August 2012, pp. 28-35 (Interview/Andrea ?ernivec); Stjepan
Razum, “Mu?enici i ˛rtve u Zagreba?koj nadbiskupiji”, in Mile Bogovi? (ed.), Hrvatski mu?enici
i ˛rtve iz vremena komunisti?ke vladavine. Zbornik radova (Zagreb, 2013), pp. 464.-465.
54 See Zbornik zakona i naredaba NDH, I, vol. I-XII, No. 1-1258 (Zagreb, 1941); Zbornik zakona
i naredaba NDH, II, vol. I-XXXVII, No. 1-1427 (Zagreb, 1942).

55 See Jasenovac. Koncentracioni logor 1941-1945. Spisak ustaških ˛rtava identifi kovanih do 30.
X 1997., vol. I-III (Belgrade, 1997) or Jasenovac. Concentration camp 1941-1945. List of victims
of ustashas identifi ed up to 30. X 1997., vol. I-III (Belgrade, 1997).
56 See Poimeni?ni popis ˛rtava koncentracijskog logora Jasenovac 1941.-1945., ed. Jelka Smrekar
i ?or?e Mihovilovi? (Jasenovac, 2007).
57 See www.jusp-jasenovac.hr.
58 See A. Mileti?, NDH - Koncentracioni logor Jasenovac 1941-1945., p. 123; A. Mileti?, Ubijeni
u koncentracionom logoru Jasenovac 1941-1945./Th e Assassinated in the Jasenovac Concentration
Camp 1941-1945., p. 27.

59 See V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori
i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, pp. 704-705, 713-714, 717-
722, 725, 728-729, 734-735, 746; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske
u Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, pp. 64, 67, 69-71, as well as the sources cited therein.
60 See Spisak ˛rtava rata 1941 - 1945. Ustaški logor Jasenovac (Belgrade, 1992); Jasenovac. ˇrtve
rata prema podacima Statisti?kog zavoda Jugoslavije, ed. Meho Viso?ak i Bejdo Sobica (Zürich/
Sarajevo, 1998); D. Kova?i?, “Jasenovac – ˛rtve rata prema podacima Statisti?kog zavoda Jugoslavije,
Sarajevo - Zürich, 1998, 1171 str.”, pp. 222-223.
61 See Jasenovac. Koncentracioni logor 1941-1945. Spisak ustaških ˛rtava identifi kovanih do 30.
X 1997., vol. I-III (Belgrade, 1997) or Jasenovac. Concentration camp 1941-1945. List of victims
of ustashas identifi ed up to 30. X 1997., vol. I-III (Belgrade, 1997).
62 See Poimeni?ni popis ˛rtava koncentracijskog logora Jasenovac 1941.-1945., ed. Jelka Smrekar
i ?or?e Mihovilovi? (Jasenovac, 2007).
63 See www.jusp-jasenovac.hr.
64 B. Ko?ovi?, ˇrtve Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji (London, 1985), pp. 121, 173, 182, (Sarajevo,
1990), pp. 107, 163, 172, (Belgrade, 2005), pp. 107, 163, 172; Vladimir ˇerjavi?, Gubici
stanovništva Jugoslavije u drugom svjetskom ratu (Zagreb, 1989), pp. 63, 73, 101; V. ˇerjavi?,
Opsesije i megalomanije oko Jasenovca i Bleiburga. Gubici stanovništva Jugoslavije u drugom
svjetskom ratu, pp. 159, 168, 198; V. ˇerjavi?, Population losses in Yugoslavia 1941-1945, pp. 151,
156, 176; V. ˇerjavi?, Pertes de la population en Yougoslavie 1941-1945, pp. 159, 164, 183-184.
65 See N. Lengel-Krizman, Genocid nad Romima. Jasenovac 1942., pp. 60-62; Narcisa Lengel-
Krizman, “Genocid nad Romima – Jasenovac 1942.”, in Tea Ben?i? Rimay (ed.), Spomen podru?je
Jasenovac (Jasenovac, 2006), pp. 168-169.

66 See R. ?uri?, A. Mileti?, Istorija Holokausta Roma, pp. 203-424.
67 D. Cvetkovi?, “Stradanje civila Nezavisne Dr˛ave Hrvatske u logoru Jasenovac”, p. 161; D.
Cvetkovi?, “Stradanje stanovništva NDH u logorima – numeri?ko odre?enje”, p. 48.
68 See V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori
i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, pp. 704-707, 713-715, 717-
720, 725, 728-729, 735, 746; V. Geiger, “Brojidbeni pokazatelji o ljudskim gubicima Hrvatske u
Drugom svjetskom ratu i pora?u”, pp. 53-55, 61, 64, 67, 69-72, as well as the sources cited therein.
69 See Spisak ˛rtava rata 1941 - 1945. Ustaški logor Jasenovac (Belgrade, 1992); Jasenovac. ˇrtve
rata prema podacima Statisti?kog zavoda Jugoslavije, ed. Meho Viso?ak i Bejdo Sobica (Zürich/
Sarajevo, 1998); D. Kova?i?, “Jasenovac – ˛rtve rata prema podacima Statisti?kog zavoda Jugoslavije,
Sarajevo - Zürich, 1998, 1171 str.”, pp. 222-223.
70 See Jasenovac. Koncentracioni logor 1941-1945. Spisak ustaških ˛rtava identifi kovanih do 30.
X 1997., vol. I-III (Belgrade, 1997) or Jasenovac. Concentration camp 1941-1945. List of victims
of ustashas identifi ed up to 30. X 1997., vol. I-III (Belgrade, 1997).
71 See Poimeni?ni popis ˛rtava koncentracijskog logora Jasenovac 1941.-1945., ed. Jelka Smrekar
i ?or?e Mihovilovi? (Jasenovac, 2007).
72 See www.jusp-jasenovac.hr.
73 Jaša Romano, Jevreji Jugoslavije 1941-1945. ˇrtve genocida i u?esnici NOR (Belgrade, 1980),
p. 201.
74 B. Ko?ovi?, ˇrtve Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji (London, 1985), pp. 120, 182, (Sarajevo,
1990), pp. 106, 172, (Belgrade, 2005), pp. 106, 172; V. ˇerjavi?, Gubici stanovništva Jugoslavije u

drugom svjetskom ratu, pp. 63, 73, 101-102; V. ˇerjavi?, Opsesije i megalomanije oko Jasenovca i
Bleiburga. Gubici stanovništva Jugoslavije u drugom svjetskom ratu, pp. 159, 168, 198-199;
Vladimir ˇerjavi?, “Demografski pokazatelji o stradanju ˇidova u NDH”, in Narcisa Lengel -
Krizman, Ivo Goldstein (ed.), Antisemitizam, Holokaust, Antifašizam (Zagreb, 1996), pp. 133-
138; V. ˇerjavi?, Population losses in Yugoslavia 1941-1945, pp. 151, 156, 176; V. ˇerjavi?, Pertes
de la population en Yougoslavie 1941-1945, pp. 159, 164, 183-184.
75 See Melita Švob, Zoran Mirkovi?, ˇidovi u Hrvatskoj – ˛idovske zajednice/Jews in Croatia –
Jewish communities, vol. II (Zagreb, 2004).
76 Zlo?ini fašisti?kih okupatora i njihovih pomaga?a protiv Jevreja u Jugoslaviji (Belgrade, 1952),
p. 64.
77 Samuel Pinto, Zlo?ini okupatora i njihovih pomaga?a nad Jevrejima u Bosni i Hercegovini
(Sarajevo, 1952), pp. 299, 306, 309, 312, 314, 326, 331, 342, 353, 358, 361, 373, 380, 384, 387, 390,
395, 402, 413, 424, 426, 430, 432, 433, 435, 450, 453, 457, 458 [manuscript].
78 Ivo Goldstein, Slavko Goldstein, Holokaust u Zagrebu (Zagreb, 2001), p. 648; Ivo Goldstein,
“Istra˛ivanje ˛idovskih ˛rtava: razmatranja o Zagrebu i Hrvatskoj”, Dijalog povjesni?ara –
istori?ara 5 (2002), p. 461; Ivo Goldstein, “ˇidovi u logoru Jasenovac”, in Tea Ben?i? Rimay (ed.),
Spomen podru?je Jasenovac (Jasenovac, 2006), p. 138.
79 See Mišo Deveri?, Ivan Fumi?, Hrvatska u logorima 1941.-1945. (Zagreb, 2008), p. 126.
80 D. Cvetkovi?, “Stradanje civila Nezavisne Dr˛ave Hrvatske u logoru Jasenovac”, p. 161; D.
Cvetkovi?, “Stradanje stanovništva NDH u logorima – numeri?ko odre?enje”, p. 48; D. Cvetkovi?,
“Holokaust u Nezavisnoj Dr˛avi Hrvatskoj – numeri?ko odre?enje”, pp. 172, 174-175.
81 D. Cvetkovi?, “Holokaust u Nezavisnoj Dr˛avi Hrvatskoj – numeri?ko odre?enje”, p. 172.
82 See Ulrich Schiller, Njema?ka i “njezini” Hrvati. Od ustaškog fašizma do Tu?manovog nacionalizma
(Zagreb, 2013.), p. 79.

83 See http://sr.wikipedia.org/sr-el/???????????_????????_??_??????????_??????_?_
?????????; Srboljub ˇivanovi?, Jasenovac. Odabrani radovi, ?lanci, intervijui, govori i diskusije
(Belgrade/London, 2008, Belgrade, 2012).
84 For example, see Croatian State Archives, Zagreb, Zemaljska komisija za ratne zlo?ine, Glavni
urud˛beni zapisnik, 1768/45.; Voja Jovanovi?, Deca i rat. Jugoslavija 1941-1945 (Belgrade,
1962); Dragoje Luki?, Rat i djeca Kozare (Belgrade, 1979, Belgrade, 1984, Belgrade, 1990); Petar
Stanivukovi?, Jurica Kerbler, Deca u logorima smrti (Belgrade, 1986); ?iril Peteši?, Dje?ji dom
Jastrebarsko 1939-1947. Dokumenti (Zagreb, 1990); ˇrtve rata 1941 - 1945. godine. Deca, vol. I-II
(Belgrade, 1994); Dragoje Luki?, Bili su samo deca. Jasenovac – grobnica 19.432 devoj?ice i
de?aka, vol. 1-2 (Belgrade, 2000); Dnevnik Diane Budisavljevi?, Fontes 8 (2002), pp. 11-306 or
Diana Budisavljevi?, Dnevnik (Zagreb/Jasenovac, 2003); Dušan Bursa?, An?eli u paklu (Banja
Luka, 2006); Rade Milosavljevi?, De?ji ustaški koncentracioni logor Jastrebarsko (Jagodina, 2009);
Ivan Ott, Djeca ˛rtve rata i pora?a optu˛uju! (Split, 2010); Ivan Fumi?, Djeca – ˛rtve ustaškog
re˛ima (Zagreb, 2011), as well as the sources cited therein.
85 See Dragoje Luki?, Bili su samo deca. Jasenovac – grobnica 19.432 devoj?ice i de?aka, vol. 1-2
(Belgrade, 2000); Poimeni?ni popis ˛rtava koncentracijskog logora Jasenovac 1941.-1945., Jelka
Smrekar and ?or?e Mihovilovi?, eds. (Jasenovac, 2007) or www.jusp-jasenovac.hr.
86 See A. Mileti?, NDH - Koncentracioni logor Jasenovac 1941-1945., p. 123; A. Mileti?, Ubijeni
u koncentracionom logoru Jasenovac 1941-1945./Th e Assassinated in the Jasenovac Concentration
Camp 1941-1945., p. 27.
87 See http://sr.wikipedia.org/sr-el/???????????_????????_??_??????????_??????_?_
?????????; Srboljub ˇivanovi?, Jasenovac. Odabrani radovi, ?lanci, intervijui, govori i diskusije
(Belgrade/London, 2008, Belgrade, 2012).

88 V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori
i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, p. 736.
89 V. ˇerjavi?, Opsesije i megalomanije oko Jasenovca i Bleiburga. Gubici stanovništva Jugoslavije
u drugom svjetskom ratu, p. 72; V. ˇerjavi?, “Manipulacije ˛rtvama drugoga svjetskog rata 1941.-

1945.”, p. 161; V. ˇerjavi?, “Demografski i ratni gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu i
pora?u”, p. 556; V. ˇerjavi?, Population losses in Yugoslavia 1941-1945, p. 92; V. ˇerjavi?, Pertes
de la population en Yougoslavie 1941-1945, p. 101.
90 N. Matauši?, Jasenovac 1941.-1945. Logor smrti i radni logor, pp. 120-122; M. Deveri?, I.
Fumi?, Hrvatska u logorima 1941.-1945., p. 126.
91 V. ˇerjavi?, Opsesije i megalomanije oko Jasenovca i Bleiburga. Gubici stanovništva Jugoslavije
u drugom svjetskom ratu, p. 74.
92 For example, see Igor Graovac, ˇrtve ?etnika u Hrvatskoj 1941.-1945. godine. Sociološki aspekti,
[vol.] 1, Doctoral thesis (Zagreb, 1995), p. 46 or Igor Graovac, Stradali od ?etnika u Hrvatskoj
1941.-1945. godine. Prilog istra˛ivanju: strukture stradalih (Zagreb, 2011), p. 28; N. Matauši?,
Jasenovac 1941.-1945. Logor smrti i radni logor, p. 123; Filip Škiljan, Politi?ki zatvorenici u logorima
Jasenovac i Stara Gradiška (Zagreb, 2009), p. 204; F. Škiljan, “Logorski sustav Jasenovac -
kontroverze”, p. 125.
93 See B. Ko?ovi?, ˇrtve Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji (Sarajevo, 1990), p. XVI, (Belgrade,
2005), p. XVI; B. Ko?ovi?, Nauka, nacionalizam i propaganda (Izme?u gubitaka i ˛rtava Drugoga
svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji), pp. 87-88, 147-148.
94 Dragan Cvetkovi?, “Jasenovac u sistemu stradanja civila u NDH – kvantitativna analiza (ili,
ponovo o brojevima)”, in Zdravko Antoni? (ed.), Jasenovac. Zbornik radova ?etvrte me?unarodne
konferencije o Jasenovcu (Banja Luka, 2007), pp. 76-77; D. Cvetkovi?, “Stradanje civila Nezavisne
Dr˛ave Hrvatske u logoru Jasenovac”, pp. 160-161; Dragan Cvetkovi?, “Stradanje stanovništva
NDH u logorima – numeri?ko odre?enje”, in Vladimir Geiger, Martina Grahek Ravan?i?, Marica
Karakaš Obradov (ed.), Logori, zatvori i prisilni rad u Hrvatskoj/Jugoslaviji 1941.-1945./1945.-
1951. Zbornik (Zagreb, 2010), p. 53; Dragan Cvetkovi?, “Holokaust u Nezavisnoj Dr˛avi Hrvatskoj
– numeri?ko odre?enje”, Istorija 20. veka XXIX (2011), No. 1, p. 175. See V. Geiger, “Ljudski
gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori i njihovi pomaga?i’.
Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, pp. 723-724.

95 D. Cvetkovi?, “Stradanje stanovništva NDH u logorima – numeri?ko odre?enje”, p. 48.
96 Predrag M. Vajagi?, Nenad Stoši?, Istorija 8. U?benik za osmi razred osnovne škole (Belgrade,
2010), p. 159.
97 Radoš Ljuši?, Ljubodrag Dimi?, Istorija za osmi razred osnovne škole (Belgrade, 2010), p. 179.
98 ?or?e ?uri?, Mom?ilo Pavlovi?, Istorija za osmi razred osnovne škole (Belgrade, 2010), p.
153; ?or?e ?uri?, Mom?ilo Pavlovi?, Istorija za tre?i razred gimnazije prirodno-matemati?kog
smera i ?etvrti razred gimnazije opšteg i društveno-jezi?kog smera (Belgrade, 2010), p. 206.
99 See http://sr.wikipedia.org/sr-el/???????????_????????_??_??????????_??????_?_
?????????

100 See Srboljub ˇivanovi?, Jasenovac. Odabrani radovi, ?lanci, intervijui, govori i diskusije (Belgrade/
London, 2008, Belgrade, 2012).
101 See Vladimir Geiger, “Sumanuti i bolesni navodi i tvrdnje Me?unarodne komisije za
utvr?ivanje istine o Jasenovcu (Th e International Commission for the Truth on Jasenovac)”,
Politi?ki zatvorenik, No. 253, Zagreb, 2013, pp. 13-17.
102 See 5. me?unarodna konferencija o Jasenovcu, Banja Luka, 24. i 25. 05. 2011. godine [transcript
of audio recording], pp. 73-74 [“Usvajanje Deklaracije o genocidu nad Srbima, Jevrejima
i Romima u Drugom svjetskom ratu”]; Smilja Avramov (ed.), Jasenovac. Zbornik izlaganja,
saopštenja i svjedo?enja, Banja Luka, 24. i 25. maj 2011. godine / Peta Me?unarodna konferencija
o sistemu koncentracionih logora i stratišta hrvatske dr˛ave za istrebljenje Srba, Jevreja i Roma u
Drugom svjetskom ratu (Kozarska Dubica/Banja Luka, 2011), pp. 108-112, 311-313, 331-333 or
Smilja Avramov (ed.), Jasenovac: the speeches, proceedings and memories/ Fift h International
Conference on the Systems of Concentration Camps & Execution Sites of the Croatian State for the
Extermination of Serbs, Jews & Gypsies in WWII, Banja Luka, 24th & 25th May 2011 (Kozarska
Dubica/Banja Luka, 2011), pp. 123-127, 343-345; Deklaracija o genocidu Nezavisne Dr˛ave Hrvatske
nad Srbima, Jevrejima i Romima tokom Drugog svjetskog rata. Peta me?unarodna konferencija
o Jasenovcu, 24-25. maj 2011. Banja Luka / Declaration on the genocide committed against
the Serbs, Jews and Roma by the Independent State of Croatia during the Second World War. Th e
Fift h International Conference on Jasenovac, May 24-25, 2011 Banja Luka, Kosta ?avoški, Smilja
Avramov, Vasilije Kresti? (ed.) (Banja Luka, 2011).

103 See http://www.objektivno1.rs/region-gradovi/cacak/3070/tribina-dveri-u-cacku-istina-ojasenovcu.
html.
104 For example, see Srboljub ˇivanovi?, Jasenovac. Odabrani radovi, ?lanci, intervijui, govori i
diskusije (Belgrade/London, 2008, Belgrade, 2012); Jaša Almuli, Jevreji i Srbi u Jasenovcu (Belgrade,
2009).
105 Jakob Danon, “Gradina 2012. Da se nikad ne zaboravi i oprosti, a kamoli desi”, Jevrejski glas.
Glasilo Jevrejska zajednice Bosne i Hercegovine, No. 53, Sarajevo, July 2012, p. 9.
106 See V. Geiger, “Sumanuti i bolesni navodi i tvrdnje Me?unarodne komisije za utvr?ivanje
istine o Jasenovcu (Th e International Commission for the Truth on Jasenovac)”, pp. 14, 16.
107 For example, see Zdravko Antoni? (ed.), Jasenovac. Zbornik radova Prve me?unarodne konferencije
i izlo˛be o jasenova?kim koncentracionim logorima, 29-31. oktobra 1997. godine, u Njujorku
(Banja Luka, 2007); ˇana Ateljevi? (ed.), Druga me?unarodna konferencija Jasenovac – sistem
hrvatskih ustaških logora genocida (1941-1945), 8-10. maj 2000. godine, Banja Luka – Donja
Gradina (Banja Luka, 2002); Zdravko Antoni? (ed.), Jasenovac. Zbornik XI me?unarodna konferencija
o holokaustu Holokaust iz perspektive 21-og veka / Tre?a me?unarodna konferencija o
Jasenovcu Jasenovac – anatomija zapostavljenih koncentracionih logora, Jerusalem, Izrael 29-30.
decembar 2002. (Banja Luka, 2007); Zdravko Antoni? (ed.), Jasenovac. Zbornik radova ?etvrte
me?unarodne konferencije o Jasenovcu, Banja Luka – Donja Gradina, 30-31. maj 2007. (Banja
Luka, 2007); Smilja Avramov (ed.), Jasenovac. Zbornik radova, Banja Luka, 24. i 25. maj 2011.
godine / Peta Me?unarodna konferencija o sistemu koncentracionih logora i stratišta hrvatske
dr˛ave za istrebljenje Srba, Jevreja i Roma u Drugom svjetskom ratu (Kozarska Dubica/Banja
Luka, 2011) or Smilja Avramov (ed.), Jasenovac : Th e Proceedings, Banja Luka, 24th & 25th May
2011. / Fift h International Conference on the Systems of Concentration Camps & Execution Sites
of the Croatian State for the Extermination of Serbs, Jews & Gypsies in WWII (Kozarska Dubica/
Banja Luka, 2011); Smilja Avramov (ed.), Jasenovac. Zbornik izlaganja, saopštenja i svjedo?enja,
Banja Luka, 24. i 25. maj 2011. godine / Peta Me?unarodna konferencija o sistemu koncentra

cionih logora i stratišta hrvatske dr˛ave za istrebljenje Srba, Jevreja i Roma u Drugom svjetskom
ratu (Kozarska Dubica/Banja Luka), 2011 or Smilja Avramov (ed.), Jasenovac : the speechees,
proceedings and memories / Fift h International Conference on the Systems of Concentration Camps
& Execution Sites of the Croatian State for the Extermination of Serbs, Jews & Gypsies in WWII,
Banja Luka, 24th & 25th May 2011 (Kozarska Dubica/Banja Luka, 2011); Srboljub ˇivanovi?,
Jasenovac. Odabrani radovi, ?lanci, intervijui, govori i diskusije (Belgrade/London, 2008, Belgrade,
2012); Jaša Almuli, Jevreji i Srbi u Jasenovcu (Belgrade, 2009); http://www.krajinaforce.
com/jasenovac.html.
108 V. Geiger, “Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzro?ili ‘okupatori
i njihovi pomaga?i’. Brojidbeni pokazatelji (procjene, izra?uni, popisi)”, p. 730.

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